There are over 9.3 million people enduring complex, intersecting challenges in Sudan.The economic crisis is causing widespread malnutrition; lapses in the rule of law are allowing ethnic tensions to erupt into violence; flooding remains life-threatening; and diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), cholera, polio and chikungunya, remain prevalent.
UNICEF will use a rights-based approach to protect and empower vulnerable children, adolescents, women and people with disabilities. Critical, life-saving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), education, nutrition, health and child protection services will be integrated, coordinated and COVID-19-safe to ensure their comprehensive delivery to communities across the country.
UNICEF urgently requires US$199.3 million to address the needs of vulnerable populations and help shape the futures of 5.4 million Sudanese children in need. Lack of resources for these interventions will mean the further erosion of already fragile health, education and WASH systems and community structures in Sudan.
HUMANITARIAN SITUATION AND NEEDS
People in Sudan remain extremely vulnerable to emergencies. Deepening poverty is causing widespread malnutrition; lapses in the rule of law are allowing ethnic tensions to erupt into violence; flooding and disease outbreaks are destroying lives and livelihoods; and education interruptions in 2019 and 2020 have left 13 million children out of school.COVID-19 and related mitigation measures are further complicating these existing challenges.
These hardships are threatening people's lives, denying children – particularly girls – access toan education, creating serious protection risks and giving rise to violations and abuse, including gender-based violence.Past conflicts in Sudan and neighbouring countries have leftthousands of people internally displaced or living as refugees and without basic support, in and outside of camps.
While the recent steps taken towards securing peace have opened the possibility of humanitarian assistance in previously inaccessible areas in Darfur, Kordofan and Blue Nile, humanitarian needs remain high: 9.3 million people, including 5.4 million children, will require humanitarian assistance in 2021.
In addition to the violence, flooding and disease outbreaks, populations are affected by the economic turmoil that has undermined livelihoods and increased vulnerabilities across the country. Annual inflation reached 168 per cent in August 2020and the middle class is shrinking. Sudan’s food and nutritional security are eroding, deepening a crisis already affecting 14 per cent of the population. Over 574,000 children require treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM)and the operational costs of reaching these children are rising.
Sudanese communities are affected by regular outbreaks of diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, measles, polio, cholera and, since March 2020, COVID-19. Poor infrastructure, meager resourcing and humble capacities have stretched the fragile health system. Rural people are particularly affected due to heightened economic vulnerability and food and nutrition insecurity. The arrival of COVID-19 has exposed these vulnerabilities, with nearly 14,000 reported cases,over 800 heaths, and a disproportionately high case fatality rate outside of Khartoum.
As of October 2020, 1.9 million people, including 1.6 million children, are displaced due to conflict and ethnic violence in Darfur, Kordofan and Eastern states.
While peace agreements mark political progress, deep communal tensions can quickly ignite into deadly violence. Sudan also hosts 1.1 million refugees fleeing strife from surrounding countries. Over 813,000 of these refugees are from South Sudan, including 560,000 living outside of camps in host communities. 15