Food and nutrition security assessment in Sudan: analysis of 2009 National Baseline Household Survey (NBHS)


Executive Summary

One out of every three persons in Sudan suffered from food deprivation in 2009 based on the National Baseline Household Survey (NBHS), 2009. The prevalence of under-nourishment, defined as calorie intake falling below a Minimum Dietary Energy Requirement (MDER), was 31 and 34 percent for urban and rural populations, respectively.

The prevalence of undernourishment for southern States fell in the category of very high severity of food deprivation (47 percent), while the figure for the northern States categorized high severity. The highest level of food deprivation were observed in the States of Western Bahr Al Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap and Lakes, with more than half of their population suffering from undernourishment.

The average person had a daily dietary energy consumption (DEC) of 2180 kcal per person in 2009.
Rural and urban areas had similar daily DEC levels of 2140 and 2270 daily kcal per person, respectively.

The depth of hunger, which refers to the amount of daily dietary energy consumption per person required by the undernourished population to reach the minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER), was 344 kcal at the national level and 343 and 344 kcal in urban and rural areas, respectively. This amount of DEC expressed in food quantity is about 100 grams of daily food grains per person which is equivalent to about 37 kg of yearly food grain consumption per person, ignoring possible food losses after food acquisition.
The depth of hunger was however remarkably different in households by States, ranging from 249 kcal in Al Gezira to 521 kcal in Western Bahr Al Ghazal.

At national level, an average person spent 2.71 SDG to consume 2180 kcal per day, more in urban areas (3.53 SDG) than in rural areas (2.32 SDG). Among States, food expenditures range from 1.32 SDG in Warrap to 3.63 SDG in Khartoum.

The percentage of food in total household consumption, food ratio (FR), was 61.4 percent at the national level, lower in urban areas, 56.4 percent, than in rural areas, 65.7 percent.

The contribution of macro-nutrients (carbohydrate, fat and protein) to DEC ranked carbohydrate as the highest source of energy (65.7 percent) followed by fat (21.9 percent) and then protein (12.4 percent).
These contributions to total energy were in line with the WHO/FAO guidelines for a balanced diet by energy-yielding macro-nutrients.

The survey revealed that the percentage of DEC from purchases at the national level was 80.9 percent,

91.8 percent in urban areas and 75.2 percent in rural areas. In terms of food sources for DEC from own production was 7.6 percent nationwide, 1.4 percent in the urban areas and 10.7 percent in rural. The highest contributions to DEC from own production were in the States of Eastern Equatoria with 42.1 percent and Western Equatoria with 50 percent.

Inequality, as measured by the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of DEC was similar for urban and rural populations, 31.2 and 32.2 percent respectively; however, it was higher in female than in male headed households, at 35.1 and 29.6 percent, respectively.