The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) provides primary data and information on internal displacement and population movements incountry and at regional and global levels. DTM’s work worldwide informs humanitarian, recovery, transition and development interventions by providing timely data and analysis to relevant actors including governments, United Nations partner agencies, donors and other stakeholders.
DTM operates in contexts where conflict, natural disasters and complex emergency settings can cause short-term or protracted displacement, as well as in mixed migration contexts.
In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, there were 12.1 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 2020.1 This figure constitutes 22 per cent of the global number of IDPs, making the MENA the region with the second highest concentration of IDPs following the sub-Saharan Africa region.
Most displacement in the MENA region (98%) has been triggered by armed conflict, in particular in Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen.
DTM is active in five countries in the region (Iraq, Libya, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen) and operates through the Humanitarian Country Teams (HCT) and inter-sectoral coordination structure of these countries. This Quarterly Report, covering the last three months of 2021, provides an update on the displacement situation in the four countries of the region – Iraq, Libya, Sudan, and Yemen –2 as well as mixed migration flows to and from the region.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, without major hostilities and natural disasters in Iraq and Libya, the DTM data show a downward trend of IDP numbers. However, existing and newly erupted inter-communal conflicts in Sudan resulted in hundreds of thousands of displacements. In addition, an escalation in hostilities between adversaries since September in Yemen exacerbated the displacement situation.
Below is a summary of contextual factors for the displacement and return trends for each country:
• In Iraq, while over 13,000 additional IDP returns were recorded during this quarter, 1.2 million people remain displaced. Housing is the category with the highest impact on the overall living conditions of IDPs, followed by infrastructure and services, livelihoods and social inclusiveness.
• In Libya, amid political uncertainty with the presidential election of December 2021 postponed until further notice, the number of IDPs continued to decrease (179,000 as of November), whereas the number of IDPs returning to their places of origin increased.
• In Sudan, the conflict observed since the beginning of 2021 continued to intensify. Several new inter-communal clashes have displaced at least 92,000 people in Darfur and Kordofan regions during this quarter.
• In Yemen, escalation of hostilities since early September resulted in a sudden spike of displacement across 13 governorates, including Ma’rib, Al Hodeidah and Al Bayda recording about 87,000 individuals displaced at least once during this quarter.