In Brief: UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for The Sudan

Originally published
Department of Humanitarian Affairs
Launched 18 February 1997


A 13 year civil war continues to degrade the lives of millions of Sudanese. War-affected populations are struggling to cope with the affects of chronic malnutrition and an alarming increase in the spread of infectious diseases. A collapsing economy is putting intense pressure millions of people already living below subsistence levels.

Throughout 1996, the Government of the Sudan (GOS) increased its restrictions on the flow of international relief assistance, seriously limiting the ability of Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) to fulfill the UN's humanitarian mandate. For much of this year, until August, the World Food Programme (WFP) was able to deliver from Lokichokio, northern Kenya, only 20 percent of the
food required to support vulnerable populations in war-affected areas in southern Sudan. In retaliation against the restrictions of the GOS, rebel factions also began denying access to certain destinations in 1996, further constraining OLS.

In addition, relief and rehabilitation activities were periodically disrupted by fighting and insecurity in areas where the most vulnerable populations live, especially northern Bahr Al-Ghazal, parts of Jonglei, eastern Upper Nile, and East Equatoria. In 1996 more than 60 evacuations of approximately 240 relief personnel occurred from 35 locations served by OLS. In addition, five hostage -takings occurred and 37 separate bombing incidents were reported by OLS personnel.

These obstacles came at a time of limited donor support for assistance programmes in the Sudan. Only US$ 55,331,255, or approximately 52 percent of the amount requested by the 1996 Appeal was pledged.

However, OLS was able to redress somewhat the effects of the conflict on civilian populations, delivering 50,366 metric tonnes (MTs) of food of between January and November 1996, of which 28,666 MTs went to GOS-held areas and 21,700 MTs to areas controlled by the principal rebel movements. OLS continued additional programmes in health, household food security, livestock, water and sanitation, emergency education, war-affected children and capacity building, including
the delivery by air of 3,403 MTs of non-food relief supplies to areas accessible from Lokichokio.


As the main operational agencies in Operation Lifeline Sudan, WFP and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) continue to assume major responsibility for assessing needs and for identifying programme priorities in the food and non-food sectors, respectively. The 1997 Appeal is based on the results of assessments conducted in late 1996 in the northern and southern sectors of Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS); a November-December 1996 Joint FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission; and other sectoral reviews and surveys. Although food production has improved, insecurity and inadequate infrastructure will make it difficult in 1997 to transfer surplus crops to many food deficit areas.

The Appeal has sought to address recommendations of the OLS Review (August 1997), which was commissioned by DHA and subsequently shared with the Government of Sudan, the southern movements, donor governments and international humanitarian relief organizations. In response, OLS has developed a Plan of Action for implementing Review recommendations endorsed by UN agencies and is developing a strategy to provide more effective assistance to vulnerable populations living in southern Sudan, the transitional zone between northern and southern Sudan and to
settlements of displaced persons.

The goals of the OLS strategy are to:

- enhance the coping mechanisms of vulnerable populations;

- deepen the integration between northern and southern sectors;

- promote humanitarian principles;

- formalize a set of minimum operational standards;

- prioritize the assistance to and protection of internally displaced persons.

UN agencies have reviewed their current operations and are implementing the recommendations of the OLS Review for more effective performance, improved coordination, monitoring and evaluation.

The 1997 UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for the Sudan requests US$ 120,800,500 for 33 projects in six priority areas. Of these, 29 are OLS projects. The remaining four, in non-OLS areas, are: an emergency food aid project (WFP), an agriculture-livestock-fishing project (the Food and Agriculture Organization -FAO), and two projects of the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR):

Emergency food aid (US$ 43,122,913) for an estimated 2.65 million persons: 2.2 million in southern Sudan, 374,000 in the transitional zone and 78,000 in Khartoum and White Nile States. Outstanding OLS relief food requirements for 1997 are projected at 36,410 MTs. WFP is responsible for implementing this programme.

Health, nutrition and water/sanitation activities (US$22,162,900) for an estimated war-affected population of 4.2 million persons: 3,360,000 in the southern states, 445,000 in the transitional zone and 395,000 in greater Khartoum. UNICEF is implementing projects in health, water and sanitation. TheWorldThe World Health Organization (WHO) is implementing projects for control and prevention of malaria, Kala-azar, meningitis, diarhoealdiarrhoeal diseases, HIV/AIDS, and health
coordination and monitoring/evaluation.

Agriculture, livestock and fishing activities (US$10,063,561) focus on:

- emergency supply of agricultural and fishing inputs to 220,000 war-affected and displaced households in southern Sudan and the transitional zone (FAO);

- emergency supply of drugs and vaccines for control and prevention of livestock diseases (FAO);

- provision of seeds to 205,000 farming households in the drought-prone areas of Kordofan and Darfur states (FAO);

- coordination activities for emergency agricultural interventions (FAO); and

- household food security assistance to 200,000 households in southern Sudan and the transitional zone (UNICEF).

Other emergency basic services (US$6,429,000) to initiate:

- an area rehabilitation project in West Equatoria State and West Kordofan State(United Nations Development Programme UNDP);

- basic education assistance for 750,00 primary-school-age children in the southern states, South Kordofan and South Darfur states (UNICEF);

- specialized treatment and care for 10,000 homeless children in the southern states and in South Kordofan State (UNICEF);

- relief and shelter assistance for 40,000 war-displaced families in southern Sudan (UNICEF); and

- integrated barge outreach services for otherwise inaccessible populations in the Renk-Malakal, Tonga-Fanjak, Sobat and Nile river corridors, including approximately 105,000 children under five years of age and 154,000 women of child-bearing age (UNICEF).

Refugees and returnees projects (US$14,611,690) include:

- multi-sectoral assistance to 138,520 refugees, most from Ethiopian and Eritrea, and some from Chad, Uganda and Zaire (UNHCR);

- voluntary repatriation of 50,000 to 75,000 Eritrean refugees (UNHCR); and

- resettlement assistance for returnee communities in Bahr Al-Jebel State for some 3,500 persons (UNDP).

Inter-agency coordination and emergency programme support (US$24,410,436) including:

- the UN Humanitarian Coordination Unit in Khartoum (DHA);

- the promotion and application of humanitarian principles and rehabilitation strategies within OLS (UNICEF);

- capacity building in collaboration with Sudanese humanitarian agencies and international NGOs (UNICEF);

- Lokichokio camp operations (logistics support and programme field operations) (UNICEF); and

- aircraft operations and logistics for OLS northern and southern sectors.

For more information, please contact:

The Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA)

New York Office
United Nations
New York, NY 10017
Tel: (1 212) 963-1375
Fax: (1 212) 963-1388
Geneva Office
Palais des Nations
1211 Geneva
Tel: (41 22) 788-638
Fax: (41 22) 788-6389