Sri Lanka

Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP): Mid-Year Review of the Appeal 2007 for Sri Lanka

Format
Appeal
Source
Posted
Originally published


1. CHANGES IN CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES

Violence and fighting continued in the first five months of 2007, with severe humanitarian consequences for populations in the north and east. Between December 2006, when the Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) was drafted, and May 2007, fatalities increased from 3,671 to 4,799. Similarly, displacements have risen from 212,759 people in December 2006 to 234,500 in June 2007. The sharp reduction noted in the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa in May-June is due mainly to the on-going phased return process. Despite the fighting, the Ceasefire Agreement (CFA) has not been formally denounced. The Government has made public statements expressing adherence in principle to the resumption of talks, and the All-Party Representatives Committee (APRC) continued deliberations on proposals for a political settlement.

Military activities including ground, air and naval operations continued mainly to clear the eastern province. The Government has stated that it intends to complete the process of resettlement in the east and will aim further to limit the military capacity of the non-state actor. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) have threatened reprisals in the event of an army offensive in the north. Terrorist attacks in urban areas have taken place, and four air raids by the LTTE introduced a new element in the confrontation. Insecurity for civilians in the north and east had been amplified by the activities of LTTE splinter groups in Government-controlled areas.

The main land supply route to the north (A-9) remained closed, impeding the delivery of aid, and the Government is supplying the Jaffna peninsula by air and sea, building a buffer stock of essential supplies. Nevertheless, Jaffna remains isolated with the resident population in continuing need of subsistence assistance. A Government-facilitated return process in Batticaloa and Trincomalee has been under way since April-May 2007 and is monitored by national and international actors.

The humanitarian consequences continue to be serious. Civilians are exposed to the risks of death, injury, loss of shelter, loss of livelihoods, inability to access basic services, and the breakdown of essential community and family structures. Human rights concerns persisted in the form of screening, intimidation, abductions, and disappearances, and forced recruitment of children has continued. As of the end of May 2007, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has recorded 6,461 children abducted (6,154 by the LTTE and 307 by the Karuna group) with 1,789 children still being held (1,591 by the LTTE and 198 by Karuna). The LTTE has also stepped up the compulsory training and mobilisation of civilians to create a 'people's force' in the Wanni, blurring the line between civilians and combatants, and so putting large numbers of people in harm's way.

An overview of the affected populations now includes: the new IDP caseload standing at 234,500 in June 2007; about 80,000 people of the resident population of Jaffna who are economically affected; 200,000 to 300,000 residual IDPs from the tsunami and previous fighting; and around 63,000 returnees who had made their way back to their homes in the east in May-June 2007. These numbers are subject to fluctuations and are being discussed with the Government.

Access restrictions, security concerns, as well as limitations in the supplies of fuel and humanitarian goods in the north remained major challenges in the implementation of CHAP projects. Changes in the situation in the field allowed for improved access in some affected areas such as Vakarai, but administrative restrictions and media campaigns undermining the credibility of aid organisations persist. The killing of two aid workers in May posed a fresh challenge. Transparent and consistently implemented rules are being discussed in the Consultative Committee on Humanitarian Assistance (CCHA). Such rules are strongly needed and required by the aid community itself.

As suggested at the time of the CHAP launch, and based on the changes in the humanitarian context and evolving situation, the Mid-Year Review introduces revisions and adjustments in on-going projects as well as new projects, which bring the total revised funding requirements at US$ 98 million. As of 21 June $54 million has been received torwards the total CHAP funding requirements, leaving the outstanding funding requirements until the end of 2007 at $44 million. Additional funding will allow the humanitarian community to continue to complement the efforts of the Government, which takes the lead role in providing humanitarian assistance. It is necessary for that purpose that Government Ministries and agencies share their plans for relief and recovery of the affected areas. The CCHA and the newly established sub-committees, as well as the Government Agents in the districts, should continue to play the leading coordinating role in this regard.

Some basic facts about Sri Lanka



2. REVIEW OF THE COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN: PROGRESS MADE AND CHANGES IN THE RESPONSE PLANS/OBJECTIVES

2.1. IMPACT OF FUNDING LEVELS ON IMPLEMENTATION

The CHAP 2007 initially appealed for some $66 million to fund sixty-seven six-month and five 12-month projects. These requirements have been revised upwards to $98 million at the MYR. Donors generously provided $54 million or 55% of the total revised requirements. Seven agencies received $9,313,444 from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF). In addition to that, ten United Nations agencies and NGOs used their own available funds totalling $7.4 million to implement CHAP projects.

The funded CHAP projects helped to mitigate significantly the humanitarian consequences of conflict and alleviate human suffering in affected communities. Specific results are reflected in the attached monitoring and implementation matrix.

The suggested changes, with an upward revision of project costs, and additional funding requirements are justified in light of the changes in the humanitarian context described above. As agreed at the time of the launch of CHAP 2007, given the uncertainty and unpredictability of the evolving complex emergency, most of the projects were designed for a 6-month duration; in the meantime some projects needed to be cancelled while others have been revised; many now need to be expanded and to increase their budgets, based on updated assessment of needs. A contingency capacity and assets on the ground are being planned in the event of further humanitarian consequences of the spiralling fighting.

2.2. PLANNING ASSUMPTION

The CHAP 2007 assumed the following:

"The peace process remains stymied in the first half of 2007. Open hostilities continue to flare up frequently. Terrorist acts and general violence such as ambushes, mine attacks, abductions and targeted killings further intensify. Artillery shelling, aerial bombings and claymore mines cause civilian casualties and damage to property, disrupting the lives of thousands. Forced recruitment of youth and children to replenish lost cadres persists.

"Vulnerable groups extend beyond IDP caseloads; differentiation between the two categories is vague, aside from loss of shelter. As coping mechanisms are depleted, affected communities become vulnerable to repercussions of long-term relief dependency in areas in the North and East, some requiring more assistance than others. Public service facilities are weakened and face increasing difficulties in coping with the emergency situation. Affected areas that need humanitarian support include the Wanni, Jaffna, Vavuniya, Mannar, Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara. The displaced population is estimated to be between 200,000 and 400,000 persons.

"An increasing number of humanitarian and development projects of post-conflict and post-tsunami plans and programmes are disrupted or come to a complete halt due to insecurity and shrinking of operational space."

This assumption continues to be generally valid as the most likely scenario for the rest of the year. The peace process has not made progress and there are no visible indications that it could be resumed any time soon. The new displacement caseload (after April 2006), which has stayed within the projected figures, can be expected to fluctuate further by geographical areas but also due to the return process in the east. The pattern of fighting and violence in 2006 and early 2007 suggests that humanitarian agencies should prepare and plan to further assist the Government in affected areas.

2.3. STRATEGIC PRIORITIES

The priorities in the humanitarian response remain as outlined in the CHAP 2007 and continue to place the focus on protection, food, shelter, and livelihoods. Increased attention to assisting the Government in providing basic social services in the affected areas will continue. New priorities and particularly challenging issues are the safeguarding of the rights of returning IDPs as well as the introduction of sustainable early recovery components in order to help communities start the restoration of their livelihoods; at the same time remaining humanitarian needs should also be addressed while scaling down the direct relief aid deliveries.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. CHANGES IN CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES

2. REVIEW OF THE COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN: PROGRESS MADE AND CHANGES IN THE RESPONSE PLANS/OBJECTIVES

2.1. IMPACT OF FUNDING LEVELS ON IMPLEMENTATION

2.2. PLANNING ASSUMPTION

2.3. STRATEGIC PRIORITIES

2.3.1. Protection/Human Rights/Rule of Law
2.3.2. Shelter/ Non-Food Relief Items (NFRIs)/Camp Management (CM)
2.3.3. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
2.3.4. Food and Nutrition
2.3.5. Health
2.3.6. Education
2.3.7. Agriculture
2.3.8. Economic Recovery and Infrastructure (ERI)
2.3.9. Security
2.3.10. Logistics, Coordination and Support Services

2.4. SECTORAL RESPONSE REVIEW

Protection
Shelter
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Food and Nutrition
Health
Education
Agriculture/Food Security
Economic Recovery And Infrastructure
Security
Logistics, Coordination and Support Services

LIST OF PROJECTS AND IMPLEMENTATION STATUS

NEW AND REVISED PROJECTS

Protection/Human Rights/Rule Of Law
Shelter/NFRIs/CM
WASH
Food and Nutrition
Health
Education
Agriculture
Economic Recovery and Infrastructure
Security
Logistics, Coordination and Support Services

ANNEX I. ADDITIONAL FUNDING TABLES

ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ANNEX III. IASC CT IN SRI LANKA

Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.

Full Original Mid-Year Review [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]
* Get the Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)

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