Between 1 January and 31 December 2019, some 123,700 refugees and migrants arrived via the three Mediterranean routes1 from North Africa and Turkey - 13% less compared to arrivals in 2018. Most crossed the Eastern Mediterranean from Turkey. Arrivals in 2019 most commonly originated from Afghanistan, Syria, Morocco and Algeria.
In 2019, 56% of arrivals were men, 17% women and 27% children. Due to the high risks associated with crossing the Mediterranean Sea, it is estimated that some 1,336 people have died or gone missing between 1 January and 31 December 2019, a 41% decrease as compared to the 2,277 deaths in the same period in 2018. Most deaths occurred between North Africa, Italy and Malta, as well as, between North Africa and Spain.