In December 2020, the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification’s (IPC) Famine Review Committee (FRC) released a report on Pibor County, South Sudan. It concluded that western Pibor (comprising of Gumuruk, Lekongole, Pibor and Verteth payams) was experiencing ‘Famine Likely’ conditions, — characterised by households that have an extreme lack of food and/or other basic needs even after the full employment of coping strategies. According to the FRC report, these critical conditions are likely to persist until at least July 2021, regardless of the presence of potential mitigating factors such as a deescalation in conflict and a scaled-up humanitarian response. Given the continued severity of the situation, REACH, the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food Security and Livelihoods Cluster (FSLC) conducted a follow-up assessment in February 2021. The assessment team visited Pibor town, and areas outside the town including Lekongole centre, Gumuruk centre, Eviano and Kongor. The objective of the assessment was to gather further information on the drivers, assumptions and mitigating factors laid out in the FRC report, most notably indications of extreme food consumption gaps, livelihood collapse, exhaustion of coping capacity, critical malnutrition and excess mortality.