- On 12 September, the Transitional Government of National Unity, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-In Opposition (SPLM/A-IO), South Sudan Opposition Alliance, Former Detainees and Other Political Parties signed the final Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) during the 33rd Extraordinary Assembly of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Ethiopia.
- Coverage of health services significantly increased in September, including number of health facilities and partners supported, bolstered by the World Bank-funded Rapid Result Health Project in Jonglei and Upper Nile states and routine UNICEF partnerships. A total of 336,840 individuals were provided with primary health care consultations, including 144,966 children under the age of 5 years and 182,803 women.
- UNICEF has reached 99.8 per cent of its annual target for the number of children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years provided with access to education in emergencies.
Situation Overview and Humanitarian Needs
On 12 September, the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU), Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-In Opposition (SPLM/A-IO), South Sudan Opposition Alliance (SSOA), Former Detainees (FD) and Other Political Parties (OPP) signed the final Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (RARCSS) during the 33rd Extraordinary IGAD Assembly in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Agreement establishes the commitments and implementation responsibilities associated with establishing the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity; permanent ceasefire and transitional security arrangements; humanitarian assistance and reconstruction; resource, economic and financial management; transitional justice, accountability, reconciliation and healing; the parameters of a permanent constitution; and a joint monitoring and evaluation commission. Though a positive step towards sustainable peace in the country, attention now turns to the process of implementation in the pre-transition period (eight months following signature) and in the transitional period (36 months following end of pre-transition period).
The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) for September 2018 – March 2019 was released on 28 September. According to the IPC projection, an anticipated earlier than normal start of the lean season will result in an estimated 5.2 million individuals (49 per cent of the total population) being classified as severely food insecure in January-March 2019, with 34,000 in Catastrophe (IPC phase 5). At the peak of the lean season, populations in Catastrophe (IPC phase 5) existed in Leer and Mayendit (Unity), Yirol East and Yirol West (Lakes), Canal/Pigi (Jonglei), Panyikang (Upper Nile), and Greater Baggari in Wau County (Western Bahr el Ghazal). New emerging counties with populations in Phase 5 include Canal Pigi (Jonglei), Yirol East and Yirol West (Lakes), and Panyikang (Upper Nile).
According to OCHA’s September 2018 Humanitarian Access Severity Overview, humanitarian access continues to be affected and restricted across the country by all parties to the conflict, as well as by civilian authorities and criminal elements. Of the 7 million people in need of assistance in the country, approximately 1.5 million live in counties with high access constraints. The 18 counties with the highest reported access constraints are in Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria, Upper Nile, Unity and Central Equatoria states. Of the five states most affected by high access constraints, Upper Nile, Western Bahr el Ghazal and Unity host the majority of people in need (87 per cent). Blanket access denials and restrictions of movement have persisted in Western Bahr el Ghazal, while continuous fighting and lack of safety assurances in central Unity greatly constrained humanitarian access in recent months. Worsening operational interference across the Greater Upper Nile region is restricting humanitarian access and compromising principled humanitarian action. Growing insecurity in the Equatorias has significantly reduced humanitarian space and safe access for partners, including a deterioration in safe road travel, which has seen a substantial increase in ambushes and detentions of aid workers.