South Sudan Country Profile, Updated August 2016
Key mixed migration characteristics
South Sudan is a major refugee producing country and ranks among the countries with the highest levels of conflict-induced population displacement globally.
UNHCR estimates that nearly one in four South Sudanese citizens are displaced within its borders or to neighbouring countries
More than 930,000 South Sudanese are displaced in neighbouring countries (both pre and post December 2013), with the majority being hosted in Uganda (299,238) followed by Ethiopia (280,221), Sudan (246,809), Kenya (88,032), Democratic Republic of Congo (15,103), and Central Africa Republic (4,103) as of 7 August 2016.
More than 1.61 million South Sudanese were displaced in various parts of the country as of 31 July 2016, of which 170,000 were sheltered in UN Protection of Civilians sites.
South Sudan is also destination country for migrants, asylum seeker and refugees from neighbouring countries despite frequent conflict and instability that is affecting the country.
There were a total of 259,796 refugees and asylum seekers in South Sudan as of July 2016 with the majority of refugees coming from Sudan and lesser numbers from Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and Central African Republic.
The US Department of State’s 2016 Trafficking in Persons report places South Sudan on Tier 3. According to the report, South Sudan is a source and destination country for men, women and children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking
As a mixed migration origin country
South Sudan is predominantly a country of origin for refugees and asylum seekers who seek refuge in neighbouring countries in Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda and Kenya. The Republic of South Sudan, the world’s newest nation, gained independence from Sudan on July 09, 2011, after a referendum held in January 2011 in which the majority voted in favour of secession. Prior to this, Sudan experienced long civil conflict and war from 1955 to 2005, between the Arab Khartoum government and southern Sudan in which more than 2.5 million people lost their lives, mostly civilians, due to starvation and hunger
As a new nation, South Sudan faces the dual challenge of dealing with the legacy of more than 50 years of conflict and continued instability and fighting. In December 15, 2013, a power struggle between President Salva Kiir and his deputy Riek Machar took place. The independence political party, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), divided into two main factions and conflict broke out between government and opposition forces. The conflict led to a humanitarian crisis in the country including loss of lives and displacement of more than 2.2 million people. An internationally mediated peace agreement was signed in August 2015, based on a power-sharing principle and in April 2016, the leader of the SPLM opposition faction, Riek Machar, returned to Juba to form a transitional government of national unity and was sworn in as the first Vice- President with Salva Kiir as the president However on the eve of South Sudan’s fifth anniversary of independence on July 08, 2016, heavy fighting erupted in the capital Juba between the two SPLM factions resulting in loss of lives and further displacement of people.
According to the UNHCR, about 4,000 South Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers were recorded entering Uganda on a daily basis immediately after conflict erupted in Juba and nearly 54,000 fled to Uganda in July 2016 , a higher figure than total arrivals reported in the first six months of 2016 (or 33,838)