In paragraph 12 (e) of its resolution 2290 (2016), the Security Council called upon the Panel of Experts on South Sudan to provide a report on the current security threats facing the Transitional Government of National Unity, and its need to maintain law and order in South Sudan, as well as provide further analysis of the role of transfers of arms and related materiel coming into South Sudan since the formation of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) with respect to the implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan and threats to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan and other United Nations and international humanitarian personnel. Following the outbreak of large-scale fighting in Juba in early July 2016, the flight of the opposition leader, Riek Machar, from Juba and his subsequent arrival in Khartoum in late August, and the de facto collapse of the transitional government envisaged in the Agreement, the dynamics within South Sudan remain complex and fluid.
The evidence gathered by the Panel suggests that the most severe security threats to TGNU and to the implementation of the Agreement are not external but internal to South Sudan, and primarily result from the actions and policies of the two major parties to the Agreement: the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLM/A) in Government, led by the President, Salva Kiir, and SPLM/A in Opposition, led by Riek Machar. These threats include the continued belligerence of SPLM/A in Government and SPLM/A in Opposition; the intensification of the tribal undercurrent of the conflict; the collapse of the economy; and the continuing importation of arms and related materiel. In addition, the evidence obtained by the Panel suggests that threats against the United Nations and international humanitarian personnel are increasing in scope, number and degree of brutality, in a context in which senior figures of the Government, including Salva Kiir, are intensifying their rhetoric against and hostility towards the United Nations, regional bodies and the broader international community.