By Ochola James
Background and Rationale
The survey was conducted on December 2020 in three counties of greater Kapoeta (Kapoeta North Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East) with the purposely to;
- Get household information on major sectors of human development of
- Health and Wash, Livelihood, Education and protection
- To get household needs and have informed intervention strategies
12 payam were randomly selected 2 in Kapoeta East, 5 in Kapoeta South and 5 for Kapoeta North. 540 households were surveyed. Certain payams of Kapoeta East and North were excluded from the random selection due to logistical reasons.
The survey questionnaires focus mainly on:
Livelihood, Food security, Health-hygiene promotion, Education, Wash, Agriculture, Livestock, Market, Household asset, Migration, Association, Conflict and protection.
ECW1 (multi indicator pastoral education) survey
Two-stage cluster sampling:
1st stage - selection of villages (based on probability proportional to population size (PPS) and stratification).
2nd stage - selection of households (based on “improved random-walk” method)
Meeting with local authorities and community leaders representing all 3 counties was conducted in order to get the population size of all the payam and bomas
Geographic Location of greater Kapoeta Region
Greater Kapoeta comprises of 3 counties (Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East).
The communities are purely pastoral they mainly rear cattle, sheep/goat in hundreds.
The main settlement are in Riwoto, Narus and Kapoeta town.
10% of the population are severely hit by hunger while 60% are in moderate hunger. This is because household food reserve get exhausted by July, August, September, October and worst in December. This attributed to low production due small cultivation (1 ha of private land). Consequently reduced accessibility to meal a day to 1 time for adult and 2 times for children especially in Kapoeta North
Increasing challenge in water accessibility to over 41% of households, the existing boreholes are said to have broken down. The distance to boreholes is 30-1 hour walk and the time spent to fetch water is 10-30 minutes
Greater need to support education system in greater Kapoeta, the survey result shows that 94% of population are not educated and 83% cannot read or write. This means the trend is likely to continue unless major intervention is put in place in term of upgrade of schools (P.1 to P.8), strengthening SMC and PTA bodies, school feeding program etc.
Agriculture is the main source of survival to 62% of people in greater Kapoeta
Largely, women are more engaged in livelihood/income of the family than men. Almost all livelihood activities are done by women, except hunting, fishing or gathering of natural product and livestock rearing/defence
53% of households in greater Kapoeta need support in education systems
6% of children are likely not to be enrolled in school as a coping strategy
62% of households do not know where to refer GBV cases
18% of households have a “poor” Food Consumption Score (FCS) while 25% have a “borderline” FCS
The worst months of hunger are July, August, September and October
Mortality rate in children under five stand at more than 3% leading in Kapoeta East and South
The survey confirms 42% of mothers have to walk more than 1 hour for pre and post natal care worst in Kapoeta East
Knowledge on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is very low in greater Kapoeta
Only 17% of mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding (0-5.9 months)
53% of mothers don’t initiate early breastfeeding
Infant and young children are introduced to solid, semi-solid or soft food below 6 months. The report shows only 27% introduce after 6-8.9 months
41% of households agree that boreholes are not functioning/broken down and most water points don’t have water committee
In greater Kapoeta, 88% households do not have toilet, they use bush for defecation with no particular rules, the greater percentage is in Kapoeta North
87% of households reported GBV threat directed to women/girls in greater Kapoeta
The reason children 10-15 years are not attending school is early pregnancy/ marriage
79% of the households cultivate less than 1 Ha of private land
The most grown crops in private and common land include sorghum long variety (most preferred), maize, simsim and sorghum short variety
85% of farmers practice traditional system of farming, they never received any training in crop or vegetable production
67% have no access to credit not even local saving groups/association
The main problems related to livestock farming in greater Kapoeta is pest and diseases as well as lack of veterinary services
There is a lot of gap in technical and vocational education and training in greater Kapoeta, little has been done in the area of adult education, income generation/entrepreneurship trainings
21% cases of sexual assault and rape is recorded among the problems facing households in Kapoeta North out of 18% total cases in greater Kapoeta