South Sudan

Multi-sector Household Survey - Kapoeta Counties (March 2021)

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By Ochola James

Background and Rationale

The survey was conducted on December 2020 in three counties of greater Kapoeta (Kapoeta North Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East) with the purposely to;

  • Get household information on major sectors of human development of
  • Health and Wash, Livelihood, Education and protection
  • To get household needs and have informed intervention strategies


12 payam were randomly selected 2 in Kapoeta East, 5 in Kapoeta South and 5 for Kapoeta North. 540 households were surveyed. Certain payams of Kapoeta East and North were excluded from the random selection due to logistical reasons.

The survey questionnaires focus mainly on:

  • Livelihood, Food security, Health-hygiene promotion, Education, Wash, Agriculture, Livestock, Market, Household asset, Migration, Association, Conflict and protection.

  • ECW1 (multi indicator pastoral education) survey

Two-stage cluster sampling:

  • 1st stage - selection of villages (based on probability proportional to population size (PPS) and stratification).

  • 2nd stage - selection of households (based on “improved random-walk” method)

Meeting with local authorities and community leaders representing all 3 counties was conducted in order to get the population size of all the payam and bomas

Geographic Location of greater Kapoeta Region

  • Greater Kapoeta comprises of 3 counties (Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East).

  • The communities are purely pastoral they mainly rear cattle, sheep/goat in hundreds.

  • The main settlement are in Riwoto, Narus and Kapoeta town.

Main Findings

  • 10% of the population are severely hit by hunger while 60% are in moderate hunger. This is because household food reserve get exhausted by July, August, September, October and worst in December. This attributed to low production due small cultivation (1 ha of private land). Consequently reduced accessibility to meal a day to 1 time for adult and 2 times for children especially in Kapoeta North

  • Increasing challenge in water accessibility to over 41% of households, the existing boreholes are said to have broken down. The distance to boreholes is 30-1 hour walk and the time spent to fetch water is 10-30 minutes

  • Greater need to support education system in greater Kapoeta, the survey result shows that 94% of population are not educated and 83% cannot read or write. This means the trend is likely to continue unless major intervention is put in place in term of upgrade of schools (P.1 to P.8), strengthening SMC and PTA bodies, school feeding program etc.

  • Agriculture is the main source of survival to 62% of people in greater Kapoeta

  • Largely, women are more engaged in livelihood/income of the family than men. Almost all livelihood activities are done by women, except hunting, fishing or gathering of natural product and livestock rearing/defence

  • 53% of households in greater Kapoeta need support in education systems

  • 6% of children are likely not to be enrolled in school as a coping strategy

  • 62% of households do not know where to refer GBV cases

  • 18% of households have a “poor” Food Consumption Score (FCS) while 25% have a “borderline” FCS

  • The worst months of hunger are July, August, September and October

  • Mortality rate in children under five stand at more than 3% leading in Kapoeta East and South

  • The survey confirms 42% of mothers have to walk more than 1 hour for pre and post natal care worst in Kapoeta East

  • Knowledge on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is very low in greater Kapoeta

  • Only 17% of mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding (0-5.9 months)

  • 53% of mothers don’t initiate early breastfeeding

  • Infant and young children are introduced to solid, semi-solid or soft food below 6 months. The report shows only 27% introduce after 6-8.9 months

  • 41% of households agree that boreholes are not functioning/broken down and most water points don’t have water committee

  • In greater Kapoeta, 88% households do not have toilet, they use bush for defecation with no particular rules, the greater percentage is in Kapoeta North

  • 87% of households reported GBV threat directed to women/girls in greater Kapoeta

  • The reason children 10-15 years are not attending school is early pregnancy/ marriage

  • 79% of the households cultivate less than 1 Ha of private land

  • The most grown crops in private and common land include sorghum long variety (most preferred), maize, simsim and sorghum short variety

  • 85% of farmers practice traditional system of farming, they never received any training in crop or vegetable production

  • 67% have no access to credit not even local saving groups/association

  • The main problems related to livestock farming in greater Kapoeta is pest and diseases as well as lack of veterinary services

  • There is a lot of gap in technical and vocational education and training in greater Kapoeta, little has been done in the area of adult education, income generation/entrepreneurship trainings

  • 21% cases of sexual assault and rape is recorded among the problems facing households in Kapoeta North out of 18% total cases in greater Kapoeta