South Sudan is a landlocked country of approximately 640,000km2 . It was formed in 2011, gaining independence from Sudan. It is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Central African Republic. Abyei region is claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan, with its final status pending negotiations between the two countries (CIA Factbook, 2015). The country is divided into 10 states, with the capital being Juba.
The country’s terrain rises from plains in the north and central areas to southern highlands along the border (CIA Factbook, 2015). The country’s landscape is made up of hills and mountains in the north; rainforests in the south and southeast; and extensive flood plains and the Sudd wetlands in the centre, north and northeast of the country (ACTED, 09/2013). A large section of the White Nile river flows through South Sudan, and these wetlands are a vast swamp area formed by the White Nile, a main tributary of the Nile River, and make up more than 15% of the country’s total area (WB, 2014).