I. Executive Summary
South Sudan became an independent nation and the world’s newest country on July 9th 2011, marking the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that had been in place since 2005. Beginning during referendum registration and increasing after independence, about 360,000 refugees have returned to their ancestral homes throughout South Sudan since October 2010. As host communities swell, food and nutrition insecurity is increasing, and access to good employment and durable and clean living situations are significant challenges. In January 2012, twelve CHF staff conducted a needs assessment in selected communities in Central and Eastern Equatoria to better understand how conditions have changed since its last assessment in January 2010. Through 27 focus groups comprised of 564 participants, 113 individual interviews, 38 key informant interviews, and 132 surveys of randomly sampled current IMPROVE beneficiaries across various activities, CHF presents the findings of its assessment and recommendations for continued and further intervention.