- Project Context, Development Objectives and Design
1.1 Context at Appraisal
The long civil war between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) ended in January 2005 with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) by the two parties. This marked a new era for Southern Sudan, and paved the way for the return to normalcy and the homecoming of millions of internally displaced people and refugees. Following the signing of the CPA, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) was established, and took full responsibility for the overall development of the region.
The challenges to GoSS were formidable, given the enormous problems left by the civil war. In particular, the humanitarian situation was severe as a result of large-scale displacement of the population, high incidence of poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. Of the estimated population of 8.2 million, about four million were internally displaced and two million had fled their country and become refugees. The civil conflict had disrupted the already limited social and administrative infrastructure in the country; consequently the standard of education and health services had deteriorated markedly. Agricultural services in the rural areas were inadequate, although this sector, including livestock and fisheries, is the mainstay of the economy and source of livelihood to more than 85% of the population. The cumulative effect of the lengthy war was a general impoverishment of the population at large due to loss of assets, disruption of traditional production systems, underutilization of land resources, and constrained economic activities and market development.