- Galkayo is one of the six regions in Puntland state and is the capital of the Mudug region, population estimates range from 75,000 to 315,000. Using UNDP populations from 2005, there are about 105,000 people (including 30,000 IDPs).
- The town is divided into four quarters, Israac, Garsoor, Wadajir, and Horumar, with a total of sixteen sub-sections. The Darood clan is dominant in the northern part of town (under control of Puntland state) while the Hawiye clan mainly live in southern Galkayo, which is administered by the Galmudug state.
- Galkayo town is located about halfway between Mogadishu and Bossaso (about 700 km). The surrounding rural livelihood zones are Addun Pastoral and Hawd Pastoral.
- The town is an important regional hub for commerce between southern and central Somalia, the Somali region of Ethiopia and the port of Bossaso. The service sector is very important in Galkayo's economy and is strongly linked to livestock and livestock products trade.
- Main economic activities/income contributions include: wholesale and retail distribution of imported foods and products, as well as local products; remittances, import and distribution of petrol, the telecommunications sector, the kat market, and a wide range of services offered by small-scale enterprises (welding, carpentry, health care, domestic work etc).
- Galkayo hosts many IDPs, OCHA estimates there are about 7,630 IDP households.