Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin, November 2021

Situation Report
Originally published



  • The Federal Government of Somalia declares a state of emergency as drought intensifies, affecting more than 2.8 million people in 66 out of 74 districts, with nearly 133,000 people displaced in search of food, water and pasture.

  • US$14 million allocated from the Central Emergency Response Fund ($8 million) and the Somalia Humanitarian Fund ($6 million) as drought compounds existing humanitarian needs and protection risks.

  • Government opens the National Desert Locust Monitoring Center in Puntland, as increasing hopper bands are reported in the northern regions.

  • Health partners integrate Gender-Based Violence programming into 2021 HRP to ensure a holistic approach to needs arising as a result of this practice, that remains rampant in Somalia.

  • Call for strengthened civil-military coordination and information sharing as OCHA facilitates a two-day humanitarian civil-military coordination workshop.


Somalia is facing an extreme drought. All warning systems and indicators converge on the same conclusion: the situation is extreme and will likely further deteriorate in the coming months. The drought has affected more than 2.8 million people in 66 out of Somalia’s 74 districts and displaced about 133,000 people, mostly in central and southern areas, according to the UNHCR-led Protection and Return Monitoring Network.

On 23 November, Somali Prime Minister declared a state of emergency owing to the drought and appealed for humanitarian assistance. “Our country is in a state of humanitarian emergency. I call upon all Somalis, business people, religious leaders, the diaspora and the international community to make concerted efforts to mitigate the suffering of those affected by the drought,’’ said the Prime Minister.

While pockets of acute need exist across the country, the drought is particularly severe in Galmudug, Jubaland, parts of Puntland and South West states, where minimal to no rainfall has been received since the start of the October to December deyr season. The Galmudug Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management appealed for humanitarian assistance on 11 November, stating that about 80 per cent of the state is affected by drought, including areas controlled by non-state armed actors in Mudug and Galgaduud regions. Over 60,000 people have reportedly migrated with their livestock to Ethiopia, according to the Galmudug Ministry of Livestock.

In Puntland, more than 431,000 people are reportedly affected by drought, as are about 700,000 people in Somaliland and 620,000 in South West State, while in Banadir, close to 11,000 new arrivals have been reported due to drought since October.

Basic commodity prices have spiked due to severe shortages of water, fuel, cereals, food and livestock feeds. Maize and sorghum prices in many markets in southern Somalia have risen 30 to 60 per cent above a five-year average. Livestock deaths – a major source of livelihood for pastoralists – are widespread and have particularly increased since October. In Galmudug, over 2,700 livestock have been lost since 25 October due to prevailing drought and diseases, according to the state Ministry of Livestock. Livestock prices are down by over 50 per cent in November, compared to three months ago.

Pastoralists are migrating in search of food and water, including across the borders to and from Ethiopia and Kenya. About 31,000 new arrivals have been received in Jubaland, where the authorities report that four people died allegedly due to drought. The IDPs, the majority from Bay, Bakool and parts of Gedo region, are hosted in six sites in Luuq District, and urgently need food and shelter, according to the district authorities.

In late November, some areas experienced little rains, with stations recording an average of five days of rainfall, but this is significantly insufficient and of not much impact on farming communities as the planting season had ended, according to the FAO Somalia Water and Land Information Management (FAO/SWALIM). If drought conditions are to worsen as expected in December and into the first quarter of 2022, it will likely lead to a similar situation witnessed in 2016/2017, according to FAO.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
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