BUREAU FOR DEMOCRACY, CONFLICT, AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE (DCHA)
OFFICE OF U.S. FOREIGN DISASTER ASSISTANCE (OFDA)
Since 1991, widespread violence, endemic poverty, and recurrent droughts have generated a complex emergency in Somalia. Continued civil strife and inter-clan conflicts have complicated the humanitarian situation and limited access to affected areas. In FY 2007, following violence between the Somalia Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and militias associated with the Council of Islamic Courts (CIC), humanitarian conditions in Somalia further deteriorated. As a result, approximately 336,000 Somali refugees fled the country, and an estimated 725,000 people relocated to other areas within Somalia. As of August 2007, more than 1.5 million Somalis continued to face a critical situation as a result of the cumulative effects of drought conditions, floods, and civil conflict, according to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The TFG, the U.N., and relief agencies are coordinating efforts to improve access, but insecurity continues to hinder the provision of emergency assistance to affected populations.
On October 5, 2006, U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Michael E. Ranneberger redeclared a disaster due to the ongoing complex emergency in Somalia. In FY 2007, the U.S. Government (USG) provided more than $88 million for health, nutrition, agriculture and food security, nutrition, livelihoods, coordination, protection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene programs, as well as emergency food assistance, peacebuilding activities, refugee assistance, and air operations.
NUMBERS AT A GLANCE
|Estimated Displacement from Mogadishu (1)||325,000||OCHA - July 31, 2007|
|Long-Term IDP (2) Caseload||400,000||OCHA - July 31, 2007|
|Additional Population in Need of Assistance||785,000||FSAU (3) - August 2007|
|Somalia Refugees (4)||335,000||UNHCR (5) - June and July 2007|
FY 2007 HUMANITARIAN FUNDING
USAID/OFDA Assistance to Somalia: $22,827,844
USAID/FFP6 Assistance to Somalia: $59,239,400
USAID/OTI7 Assistance to Somalia: $1,000,000
USAID/CMM8 Assistance to Somalia: $250,000
State/PRM9 Assistance to Somalia: $4,871,560
Total USAID and State Humanitarian Assistance to Somalia: $88,188,804
As a result of increased humanitarian needs in FY 2007, the USG established a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) in Nairobi, Kenya, to monitor humanitarian conditions and coordinate with relief agencies operating in Somalia. Beginning in December 2006, the USG/DART worked to deliver life-saving assistance to flood- and conflict-affected Somalis. Since the USG/DART's departure in March 2007, the USAID/OFDA Regional Office in Nairobi has continued to monitor the situation and ensure the delivery of emergency assistance.
Unusually heavy rainfall in October and November 2006 caused widespread flooding across the Horn of Africa. In south and central Somalia, FAO reported that rainfall in most areas exceeded normal levels by more than 300 percent. The flooding particularly affected vulnerable pastoralist communities recovering from the 2006 drought. In response, USAID/OFDA provided more than $1 million to support emergency airlifts of relief supplies and health, water, sanitation, and hygiene programs.