Research Terms of Reference, CCCM Detailed Site Assessment, Somalia, Version 2 (December 2020)

Manual and Guideline
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2.1. Context

The protracted humanitarian crises in Somalia are multi-layered and complex. Limited development coupled with recurring climatic shocks such as drought, riverine- and flash-flooding give rise to high levels of needs amongst affected populations, while pervasive insecurity and incidents of conflict severely hinder access to humanitarian actors. Together, the aforementioned factors have influenced displacement decisions and led to an estimated 2.6 million people currently residing in planned or informal sites. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic, desert locust infestation, and instances of flooding have further exacerbated humanitarian needs. The majority of IDPs reside in overcrowded shelters in densely populated urban areas, further increasing their exposure to the risks and impacts of COVID-19.

• Key information gaps: Data collection for the third round of the DSA took place from November 2019 to February 2020 and assessed 2,344 IDP settlements in 61 districts across Somalia. The causes of displacement are multiple and dynamic, and regularly uproot families from their areas of residence, disrupt livelihoods, reduce resilience and increase underlying vulnerabilities and exposure to shocks. Increased migration to urban areas has also resulted in high numbers of forced evictions. This continued displacement has resulted in increasingly fluctuating population estimates at informal and planned settlements, complicating the humanitarian community's ability to provide essential services to address the needs of IDP populations.

The current and fourth round of the DSA aims to use a previous joint methodology and updated tool to improve on the information provided by the DSA on locations, estimated population size, and the humanitarian needs of IDPs residing in informal and planned settlements in urban / semi-urban areas.
In July, the number of people reporting drought as the cause for displacement more than doubled (compared to June), adding to the 2.6 million current IDPs, who continue to face severe risks of eviction, marginalisation, and exclusion across Somalia. Chances of exclusion and discrimination are differential and intersectional, based on societal discrimination, gender power structures, vulnerability, and age People with disabilities are at heightened risk of violence and abuse and experience significant barriers to access humanitarian aid, with pre-existing social stigmata exacerbated.

Somalia's societal structure is highly complex, comprised of numerous social groups, clans, sub-clans, and ethnic minority groups that are not members of any specific family.

In May 2017, the CCCM cluster was activated, under the co-leadership of UNHCR and IOM. There is a need for an integrated multi-sectorial response regarding IDP settlements in Somalia. The objective of Camp Coordination and Camp Management Cluster (CCCM) is to ensure equitable access to assistance, protection, and services for internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in displacement sites, to improve their quality of life and dignity during displacement while seeking and advocating for durable solutions.Thus, the DSA aims to provide a reliable evidence base which will inform cluster-specific and multi-cluster responses in IDP sites, by collecting data on the locations of sites, estimated IDP population, levels of access to, availability and quality of, essential and basic services in IDP sites.

Consequently, REACH will produce training materials for enumerators and Training of Trainers (ToT) for partner staff, Develop tools for Key informant interviews(KIIs) , conduct data collection in accessible areas, provide cleaned data for all assessed sites, analyse data and produce factsheets at the district level and national level. REACH will also triangulate the findings of the assessment with other ongoing assessment that includes Joint Multi-Cluster Needs Assessment (JMCNA) and Hard to Reach (H2R) assessments.