Somalia

Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia (S/2005/642)

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S/2005/642
I. Introduction

1. The present report is submitted pursuant to the statement of the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 (S/PRST/2001/30), in which the Council requested me to submit reports on a quarterly basis on the situation in Somalia. The report covers developments since my previous report, of 16 June 2005 (S/2005/392). The main focus of the report is on the efforts undertaken by the international community and, in particular, by my Special Representative, to foster inclusive dialogue among the leaders of the Somali transitional federal institutions. The report also provides an update on the security situation and the humanitarian and development activities of United Nations programmes and agencies in Somalia.

II. Situation within the transitional federal institutions

2. There has been no progress in ameliorating the contention between leaders of the transitional federal institutions on four broad issues: the relocation of the transitional federal institutions, a national security and stabilization plan, national reconciliation and the peace support mission envisaged by the African Union (AU)/Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). Tensions between President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed and Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Gedi, based in Jawhar, on the one hand, and the Speaker of Parliament, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, and ministers based in Mogadishu on the other, have been exacerbated during the period under review. My Special Representative for Somalia, François Lonseny Fall, has spared no effort to convince the three leaders to reach the necessary agreements through dialogue so that the transitional federal institutions could begin to function effectively. While they have stated their readiness to do so, they have reneged on a face-to-face meeting thus far (see paras. 8-19 below).

3. On 12 June 2005, President Yusuf attended a meeting of some members of Parliament in Nairobi under the chairmanship of the First Deputy Speaker, Mohamed Omar Dhalha, and announced a two-month recess of Parliament. However, the Speaker, who was not at the meeting, questioned the legitimacy of the meeting and the President's authority to declare a parliamentary recess.

4. It will be recalled that some members of the Transitional Federal Parliament began to return to Somalia in March and April 2005 (see S/2005/329, para. 6). Relocation of the transitional federal institutions began in the middle of June, following a farewell ceremony in Nairobi presided over by President Mwai Kibaki of Kenya.

5. A few days later, the Government of Yemen tried to mediate between the President and the Speaker, who were both visiting Sana'a. However, the two leaders failed to reconcile their differences. In the meantime, Prime Minister Gedi, who arrived in Jawhar on 18 June accompanied by several ministers and members of Parliament, has since set up his administration in that town. Other ministers and parliamentarians relocated to their home localities.

6. Despite the fact that the Prime Minister and the Speaker were both in Djibouti in late June, there was no dialogue between them. Upon their return to Jawhar and Mogadishu, respectively, both leaders celebrated, separately, the Somali national day on 1 July. The following day, the Speaker held a meeting with members of Parliament in Mogadishu. A formal session of Parliament could not be held owing to the lack of a quorum.

7. President Yusuf arrived in Boosaaso in "Puntland" on 3 July and on 9 July, met in Gaalkacyo with a delegation of Ministers and officials led by the Prime Minister. Since President Yusuf's arrival in Jawhar on 26 July, the President and Prime Minister have been using that city as a de facto temporary seat of the Transitional Federal Government.

8. On the basis of the statement by the President of the Security Council of 14 July 2005 (S/PRST/2005/32), I instructed my Special Representative to intensify his contacts with the leadership of the transitional federal institutions with a view to fostering an inclusive dialogue. On 1 August, he visited Jawhar and presented President Yusuf and Prime Minister Gedi with a proposal for a road map for dialogue. The road map would address the key issues of (a) an agreement on the safe relocation of the transitional federal institutions; (b) a national security and stabilization plan; (c) modalities for the deployment of an AU/IGAD peace support mission; and (d) national reconciliation.

9. My Special Representative also handed over to the leaders a sequencing chart that had been prepared by representatives of IGAD, AU and the European Union (EU). The chart proposed that, following the successful conclusion of the dialogue, the Council of Ministers and a full session of the Parliament should be called with a view to establishing a national security commission. This proposed commission would draw up the modalities for the deployment of a peace support mission. Prime Minister Gedi informed my Special Representative that his Government was already working on the issues outlined in the road map, especially national security.

10. On 3 August, my Special Representative visited Mogadishu, where he held discussions with the Speaker, ministers and members of Parliament who had relocated to the capital and presented them with a copy of the road map and the sequencing chart. The leaders welcomed the statement by the President of the Security Council of 14 July 2005 and expressed support for my Special Representative's initiative. However, they also used the occasion to voice their concerns that President Yusuf and Prime Minister Gedi might resort to an armed confrontation with them. While committing themselves to dialogue, they emphasized that the agenda, venue and composition of delegations for the talks had to be agreed to in advance.

11. Since early August, President Yusuf, Prime Minister Gedi, the Speaker and the Mogadishu-based leaders have taken unilateral actions, none of which have contributed to the resolution of the differences between them.

12. On 8 August, Prime Minister Gedi announced the composition of committees on national security, economic affairs and social affairs. Although the National Security Committee included the Minister for National Security, Mohamed Kanyare Afrah, one of the Ministers based in Mogadishu, the latter refused to recognize the right of the Transitional Federal Government to establish such committees without consultations, as stipulated in the Transitional Federal Charter.

13. On 13 August, some members of Parliament met in Mogadishu under the chairmanship of the Speaker. In a statement, they announced the establishment of a 59-member committee to restore peace and stability in Mogadishu. They also summoned all members of Parliament to Mogadishu to participate, on 27 August, in the establishment of parliamentary subcommittees. This meeting did not take place, however.

14. On 27 August, Prime Minister Gedi announced to reporters that the Government would start offering oil, gas and mineral concessions to foreign firms in the near future. He called upon foreign companies to avoid dealings with any authorities other than the Transitional Federal Government.

15. Hussein Aidid, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, returned to Mogadishu on 14 August after an absence of over four years. He announced that he would try to help efforts to reconcile differences within the transitional federal institutions. Before returning to Mogadishu, he called on my Special Representative, who encouraged him to use all possible means to foster dialogue within the transitional federal institutions.

16. In a joint effort, my Special Representative and the Minister for Regional Cooperation and East African Affairs of Kenya secured the agreement of both the Prime Minister and the Speaker to attend a meeting on 19 August in Nairobi. However, the Speaker later informed my Special Representative that he would not attend because the Prime Minister's statement said that he would meet the Speaker only if the latter was ready to cooperate with his Government. Prime Minister Gedi announced at a press conference on the same day that his Government was open for dialogue within the transitional federal institutions.

17. On his part, the Speaker gave an undertaking to my Special Representative not to use any meeting of members of Parliament in Mogadishu to undermine the prospects for dialogue within the transitional federal institutions. In a meeting with members of the international community on 26 August, he reiterated his willingness to enter into dialogue within the framework of the transitional federal institutions and stressed the need to respect the Transitional Federal Charter.

18. On 13 September, Prime Minister Gedi addressed a letter to ministers of the Transitional Federal Government, informing them of his intention, after consultations, to begin holding meetings of the Council of Ministers in Mogadishu. My Special Representative immediately welcomed the initiative and expressed the hope that the meetings would be preceded by consultations and followed by a full session of Parliament, in accordance with the Transitional Federal Charter.

19. The Presidency of the EU issued a statement on 19 September in support of Prime Minister Gedi's initiative. EU urged the Mogadishu-based ministers to respond positively as it was an important step towards resolving outstanding issues and called upon all parties to refrain from making military preparations and inflammatory statements and to commit themselves to the peaceful resolution of their differences through inclusive dialogue. EU stressed that the creation of any national Somali military force should take place in the framework of a national security and stabilization plan and in line with the statement by the President of the Security Council of 14 July 2005. EU also expressed support for my Special Representative's statement of 8 September underlining that there could be no military solution to the problems facing the transitional federal institutions.

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