The Independent Expert has since presenting his initial report to the 27th session of the Human Rights Council undertaken two field visits to Somalia. The present report contains a review of the human rights situation in Somalia based on information obtained from consultations with various interlocutors during the two country visits and the review of information gathered from different sources. Overall, the situation of human rights in Somalia remains dire. Violations to freedom of expression, widespread reports of sexual violence and the continued use of the death penalty remain major concerns. Activities of the militant group Al-Shabaab disproportionally affect the civilian population and pose a threat to sustainable peace in Somalia. Reports of civilian casualties and displacements in the context of military operations conducted against Al-Shabaab persist. Similarly, the humanitarian situation is alarming and yet funding to meet humanitarian needs in Somalia appears to be declining. As the Federal Government advances its political and stabilisation agenda, it is vital that human rights are placed at the core of this process so as to ensure a sustainable peace.