Hard-to-Reach Assessment - South and Central districts: Somalia, December 2021 - January 2022



People in Somalia are suffering as a result of decades of violence, periodic climatic shocks, disease outbreaks, and endemic poverty. The cumulative effects of this complex emergency have continued to weaken the population’s coping capacity and have resulted in the internal displacement of nearly 3 million people to date, despite the significant socio-economic improvements achieved in recent years. Further, Somalia is currently experiencing the third drought episode in a decade, following three consecutive failed rainy seasons, with prolonged drought resulting in an estimated 310,313 new internally displaced persons (IDPs) in January 2022 alone. The drought is compounding existing food insecurity among both pastoral and farming populations, and needs are spiking across the region: 13 million people are currently estimated to be facing high levels of food insecurity and water shortages. The south and central parts of the country are those most significantly affected by displacement, with the highest numbers of departures and arrivals due to conflict, insecurity and drought in 2021. However, insecurity has limited the availability of information on the needs of populations residing in several areas in this part of the country. The Hard-to-Reach (H2R) assessment serves to help address these critical information gaps and assist humanitarian planning in Somalia by monitoring needs in hard-to-reach areas.
This assessment outlines the results of the analysis run on data collected across hard-to-reach settlements located in 7 target regions of southern and central Somalia, including Bay, Bakool, Gedo, Lower Juba, Lower Shabelle, Middle Juba and Middle Shabelle..


This H2R assessment is based on an Area of Knowledge (AoK) methodology, which allows to provide an indicative overview of the situation in inaccessible areas of southern and central regions in Somalia. As part of this assessment,
REACH conducted 1,040 structured face-to-face interviews with key informants (KIs) living in informal IDP sites around Baidoa, Kismayo and Mogadishu, between 1 December 2021 and 10 January 2022. KIs reported on 532 hard-toreach settlements that they had either been displaced from or had visited in the 3 months prior to data collection, or where they had family/friends with whom they were in regular contact. After data collection, all quantitative data was aggregated at the settlement level by assigning the modal or most credible response for each settlement, wherever two or more KIs were reporting on the same location. To further triangulate KI reporting, a qualitative component was added, consisting of 12 semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) with IDPs from the assessed settlements, disaggregated by gender; these were conducted in Baidoa, Kismayo and Mogadishu between 29 December 2021 and 10 January 2022. FGD analysis results can be accessed here. Findings from this round cannot be compared to previous H2R rounds due to shifts in coverage and should be considered indicative of the situation in hard-to-reach areas in the 3 months prior to data collection.


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