1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The current ongoing instability and conflict since 1991 continue to overwhelm the humanitarian needs in Somalia, which are regularly aggravated and compounded by cyclical climatic shocks, such as droughts and flooding. To date, it is estimated that approximately 43.2 % of the population live in extreme poverty, of which 71 % of the people live without sustainable access to any improved water source and only 25 % have access to improved sanitation. A Somali stands a 54.7 % chance at birth of not surviving to the age of 60(1). Somalia is no longer included in the annual United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report (HDR) world ranking(2). If it were to be included, it would sit firmly at the bottom in the 175th position, below war-afflicted Sierra Leone. DG ECHO(3)'s Global Needs Assessment ranks Somalia 4th out of 137 countries, classifying it in the highest need category.
Somalia is currently making a slow and modest progress along its 14th Peace Process since the fall in 1991. While one can view with cautious optimism the nominations of the members of the Somali Transitional Federal Parliament, and the election of Abdullahi Yusuf as President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), the process has yet pacify the volatile insecure regions of Somalia, allowing for an immediate positive impact on the humanitarian situation. The political landscape in Somalia is currently changing. The past 6 months have seen the conflict over Mogadishu between the feudal tribal warlords erupt into a conflict between alliances of warlords and a growing Union of Islamic Courts. The spectacular success of the Union of Islamic Courts in winning control of Mogadishu and Belet Weyne have established them as a new power block in Somalia widening the possible contest for political power between rival warlords, the TFG and the Union of Islamic Courts. Even though one cannot predict how the current developments will unfold, this may lead to further insecurity over the coming year, with heavy humanitarian consequences already having been felt in Mogadishu and surrounding areas.
This has aggravated already existing difficulties in accessing victims of the situation in the South and Central of Somalia. These continue to be compromised by the security and logistical constraints which are subject to the goodwill and protection of local clans. Clan-based issues and insecurity permeate and dominate all tiers of community representation.
DG ECHO needs to prioritise and address the core humanitarian needs focusing on central and southern Somalia. As such, DG ECHO will need to maintain and encourage humanitarian partners to be able to respond rapidly and flexibly to the changing situations on the ground. This will be done by contributing to activities which address the extreme vulnerability of marginalized communities subjected to emergency needs. DG ECHO will also need to address some of the chronic needs and vulnerabilities which undermine the population's ability to sustain itself.
Humanitarian assistance is required to support an estimated 1 million beneficiaries in order to fulfil the specific objective:
- To improve the health and nutritional status of targeted beneficiaries, through the support of health, nutrition, water, sanitation and food security interventions.
The envelope proposed for the DG ECHO Somalia Global Plan 2006 is EUR 10 million.
The duration of the decision is 12 months, starting from 1st July 2006.
(1) UNDP poverty report 2000\HDR - Statistics - Somalia
(2) This is due to data on Human Development Indicators can no longer be accurately collected
(3) Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid - ECHO