Somalia

Evaluation Report: Evaluation of the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) Project Portfolio In Somalia

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Evaluation and Lessons Learned
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Executive Summary

Country Context and Peacebuilding Fund Support

  1. Somalia has made important strides on its peacebuilding and state-building agenda.
    After 25 years of civil war, the country carried out an indirect election and established the Federal government in 2012. This development in combination with other military and political transitions created an opportunity for a new political agreement in the country. 1 In 2013, the country signed the New Deal Compact2 as an agreement among all levels of the Somali government and the international community for inclusive political dialogue, reconciliation and rehabilitation of Somalia. The Compact focused on imperative political and socio-economic priorities: building inclusive politics, security, justice, the country's economic foundations, revenue collection and the provision of services.

  2. According to a study done by the Overseas Development Institute (2017), the New Deal Compact has contributed to key results such as the re-engagement of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs), and supporting the process of obtaining debt relief.4 With the introduction of the New Deal Compact, the Federal and regional governments have taken increased ownership of assistance-related decision-making and a larger share of international resources have been channeled through national systems.5 The Compact’s principles have served as a foundation for the establishment of the Somalia Development and Reconstruction Facility (SDRF), a centerpiece for the partnership between the Somalia government and the international community.6 Additional barriers still exist for peacebuilding and state-building efforts in the country including historical clan-grievances, the presence of extremist groups, absence of a functioning justice system, limited resources, climate shocks and ongoing lack of economic opportunities especially for women and youth.

  3. The Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) made its first investment in Somalia in 2009, and by 2019 the total amount of PBF funding approved for the country reached US$55.64 million for 29 projects. From its launch in Somalia in 2009 to date, PBF has supported projects implemented by 15 Recipient United Nations Organizations (RUNOs) in partnership with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), the Federal Government of Somalia, the Federal Member States, and civil society. 7 The PBF investment is comparatively modest among pooled funds in the country; however, the PBF asserts having added value in demonstrating and piloting new models and thus strategically positioning itself in the humanitarian-development-peace nexus.

  4. The current cycle of the PBF portfolio in Somalia (Starting from 2015) can be classified in three phases: the “First Phase” is comprised of Immediate Response Facility (IRF) projects developed in 2015/2016, the “Second Phase” consists of Peacebuilding and Recovery Facility (PRF) projects (and associated IRFs) organized around the Peacebuilding Priority Plan (PPP) (2016/2017), and the “Third Phase” consists of PRFs complemented by Gender and Youth Promotion Initiative (GYPI) IRF projects developed in 2018/2019. In the First Phase, a series of IRFs were developed that tended to focus on emergent needs and covered interventions targeting a mix of levels or beneficiaries including National level engagement (such as women’s participation in political representation or improving federal administrative capacity), State levels (such as establishing functional rule of law), or District levels (such as the reformation of District Councils and development of Community-Based Action Plans (CAPs) in newly liberated Districts). The first project implemented under this PBF cycle was the District level-oriented IRF-116 Support to Stabilization Project (S2S). The IRF-116 S2S supported the deployment and reestablishment of caretaker administrations in newly liberated Districts within four States (the South West States (SWS), Jubbaland, Galmudug, and Hirshabelle). Additional IRF projects were also developed in 2015 and 2016 to respond to emergent strategic needs not covered by other funds. In 2016, a three-year PPP was developed with the Government of Somalia and the United Nations to serve as an overarching framework for the PBF portfolio of support to Somalia for the 2016-2019 period. This PPP component had a specific focus on implementation in the newly established SWS and Jubbaland. The PPP was intended to provide the framework for guiding the PRF project conceptualizations, selection, and management as well as to track progress of the PBF portfolio of support against articulated strategic objectives.8 The PPP outcomes were aligned with the four PBF Priority Areas and the Peace and Statebuilding Goals (PSGs) laid out in the 2013 New Deal Compact for Somalia. In particular, the PBF portfolio of support – as articulated by the PPP – was aligned with PSGs 3 (Justice), 4 (Economic Foundations), and 5 (Revenues and Services) in newly recovered areas and contribute to the 2017-2019 National Development Plan. The PBF Portfolio of support – as articulated in the PPP – aimed to address four primary pillars: i) Building the legitimacy of the state; ii) Supporting local reconciliation processes; iii) Inclusive economic and social growth; and, iv) Building the capacity of the government at local and Federal level. The following Table profiles the projects from the first two Phases. These are the projects under review in this evaluation.