While still recovering from the worst drought in over a decade, Somalis suffered during the last months of 2006 and early 2007 both extensive flooding due to heavy Deyr rains and widespread conflict between the Transitional Federal Government and allied Ethiopian forces and the Islamic Courts Union. (ICU, also known as the Supreme Council of the Islamic Courts [SCIC] or Union of Islamic Courts [UIC]). However, the Deyr rains of October-December, while causing large-scale displacement (estimated at 255,000) and the destruction of homes and assets, resulted in exceptionally good crop production and continued pastoral recovery. The recently completed post-Deyr 2006/07 assessment by the Food and Agriculture Organization/Food Security Analysis Unit shows many rural parts of Somalia - mainly in the north and central regions - experiencing an improvement in livelihood and food security. Around one million Somalis (including 400,000 internally displaced persons [IDPs]) are now in need of assistance and protection for the next six months, as compared to the 1.8 million identified in August 2006. In order to better reflect the improved food security situation and related humanitarian needs, the 2007 Consolidated Appeal (CAP) has been revised.
This revision takes account of the fact that any gains in food security must be viewed within Somalia's long-standing humanitarian and security contexts. The post-Deyr food security analysis, while an essential tool, is not the only measure of humanitarian needs. Somalia has had no effective central government since 1991, leading to a destruction of infrastructure, disintegration of basic health and social services, widespread human rights abuses and some of the worst human development indicators in the world. Acute malnutrition rates continue to exceed the emergency threshold of 15% in many districts of South/Central. Following recent flooding, food security in riverine areas of the Juba and Shabelle Valleys deteriorated; the Juba Valley is facing a sustained humanitarian emergency. Moreover, the entire country remains chronically food-insecure. The population is highly vulnerable to any shocks - conflict or natural disaster - as evidenced by the recent outbreak of acute watery diarrhoea in South/Central Somalia. Since the start of 2007, acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) has resulted in 341 deaths out of 7,976 confirmed cases. Furthermore, several factors could negatively impact food security in the coming months. Aside from the risk of further conflict, the March 2007 Climate Outlook Forum forecasts normal to above-normal rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands and coastal areas of the Juba Valley. Such an eventuality may result in renewed flooding in riverine areas not yet recovered from Deyr floods.
The political landscape has been volatile over the last several months. In June 2006 - with the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in command of little more than the government seat of Baidoa and warlords controlling most of southern Somalia - the ICU took control of Mogadishu. By mid-September the ICU controlled much of the sout. However, in December 2006, just as floodwaters began to recede and flood response was moving into the Juba Valley, tension between the TFG and the ICU erupted into conflict in critical locations. By January, ICU militia had been defeated and TFG forces, backed by Ethiopian troops and air strikes, controlled much of southern Somalia, including Mogadishu. Since then, insecurity in Mogadishu has escalated, with regular attacks by anti-TFG factions on Ethiopian and TFG troops, as well as assassinations of persons seen as TFG supporters.
Indiscriminate mortar attacks have resulted in hundreds of civilian casualties. Key installations such as Mogadishu airport and seaport have been shelled. Following the adoption by the Security Council of Resolution 1744, the first wave of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops arrived in Somalia in early March. AMISOM troops and those providing logistical support to them have come under attack. On 23 March, an African Union-contracted aircraft was shot down on take-off from Mogadishu airport, killing all eleven passengers and crew members.
While there are an estimated 400,000 long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Somalia, three new waves of displacement have occurred since November 2006. Deyr flooding displaced 255,000, while an estimated 65,000-70,000 people moved at the height of the fighting in December. The vast majority of both groups of IDPs have since returned home. More recently, there has been significant movement out of Mogadishu; since 1 February 2007, almost 100,000Mogadishu: between 1 February and 5 April 2007, around 124,000 people have fled Mogadishu due to the fighting. (Of these, around 47,000 have fled since 21 March alone and have no access tofled in the last ten days of March alone.) They are in need of shelter, water orand food. To date, access to IDPs and other vulnerable groups in need of assistance has been hampered by conflict, lack of security guarantees, ongoing military air operations, and clan tension. The Government of Kenya's closure of its border with Somalia on security grounds for several weeks from early January also hindered humanitarian access and delivery of assistance.
Given the current context, the creation of an enabling environment for the delivery of humanitarian assistance must be supported. If Somalia slips back into anarchy, humanitarian space will inevitably be constricted. In order to respond effectively within the evolving environment, the humanitarian community is taking a number of steps, including:
- Moving towards a needs-based approach and away from an access-based approach to providing assistance;
- Stepping up investment in the security sector, enabling - among other things - an increase in personnel and the rehabilitation of UN compounds to render them compliant with Enhanced Minimum Operating Security Standards (EMOSS);
- Increasing investment in South/Central Somalia, where the vast majority of humanitarian needs are, and encouraging more international partners to be present in South/Central Somalia;
- Continuing to develop and strengthen partnerships with local NGOs and Somali partners, enhancing capacity for delivery of assistance through Somali channels.
In addition, to ensure principled action and a 'do no harm' approach, the humanitarian community has developed a set of Joint Operating Principles to promote behaviours in line with humanitarian principles and avoid fuelling the re-establishment of the system of coercion and violence perpetrated in the past by 'gatekeepers.'
All of the above initiatives complement and support the four strategic priorities identified by the humanitarian community to guide the 2007 CAP. These priorities also guide the Revised CAP:
- Provide assistance and protection to the 600,000 people who are in a state of humanitarian emergency/acute food and livelihood crisis; strengthen the resilience of Somali livelihoods to better withstand natural or conflict-related disasters;
- Improve access to basic social services for the estimated 400,000 IDPs living in protracted displacement in public buildings or settlements, including the 250,000 residing in Mogadishu;
- Enhance the protection of and respect for the human rights and dignity of affected populations;
- Strengthen local capacity for social service delivery and response to natural or conflict-related disaster.
The original 2007 Appeal for Somalia sought US$ 237,112,824. (All dollar figures in this document are United States dollars. Funding for this appeal should be reported to the Financial Tracking Service (FTS, email@example.com), which will display its requirements and funding on the FTS website (CAP 2007 page).) Given improvements in the food security situation, access improvements in some areas of South/Central, post-flood infrastructure rehabilitation needs, early recovery and disaster prevention opportunities, and new programmes to support Somali livelihoods, 16 CAP projects have been modified, 26 new projects added, and 11 projects eliminated. The revised 2007 CAP seeks $262,354,615.
Sector response plans have been adjusted to reflect the changed context. The World Food Programme's Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO) project was reduced to $56.9 from $64.9 million. A strategic shift in the Food Security and Livelihoods sector aims to help riverine communities recover from recent flooding, promote recovery of livelihoods and strengthen coping mechanisms in areas transitioning to recovery. New CAP projects in the sectors of Early Recovery, Food Security and Livelihoods, Health, Protection/Human Rights, Security, Logistics, and Multi-Sector reflect improved access in parts of South/Central. Access permitting, the World Food Programme (WFP) plans to undertake $12.9 million worth of road and port repairs to help facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance. New Early Recovery projects address return and resettlement, communitybased disaster risk mitigation and flood early warning mechanisms.
The revised amount covers 146 projects from 14 UN agencies, 21 international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs) and nine local NGOs (LNGOs) (Additional local NGOs may come in when projects are eventually implemented through Letters of Agreement.) in the eight sectors of Access; Food Security and Livelihoods; Protection; Shelter; Health; Nutrition; Water and Sanitation; and Education. The three cross-cutting sectors of Early Recovery, Gender and HIV/AIDS, and two support sectors of Logistics and Coordination and Support Services, are also represented. The Revised CAP retains the two-pillar structure - humanitarian relief and early recovery - of the original appeal. Early recovery activities aim to restore services, livelihood opportunities and governance capacity; stabilise security; and address underlying risks that trigger conflict, drought and floods. As of 12 April, according to reports from donors and recipient organizations to the Financial Tracking Service (FTS), the original CAP 2007 was 33% funded, with $85,558,199 received. As with past appeals, funding has again favoured the food sector at 95%. Other key sectors such as Water and Sanitation (20%), Food Security and Livelihoods (8%), Health (4%), and Protection (2%) remain under-funded. Education has received no funds. (Though it is likely that agencies have allocated some flexible funds to education projects.) It is essential that donors provide balanced funding so that humanitarian actors can mount a coherent and integrated response capable of addressing chronic vulnerabilities in Somalia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Executive Summary
- Table I: Summary of Requirements - by Appealing Organisation and by Cluster
- 2.1 CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT AND ASSOCIATED CONSEQUENCES
- 2.1a Context
- 2.1b Humanitarian Consequences
- 3.1 ACCESS AND SECURITY - CLUSTER LEADS: OCHA (ACCESS), UNDSS (SECURITY)
- 3.2 FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS - CLUSTER LEAD: WFP (FOOD), FAO (LIVELIHOODS)
- Table A: Proposed Food Security and Livelihood Cluster Activities
- 3.3 PROTECTION/HUMAN RIGHTS/RULE OF LAW - CLUSTER LEAD: UNHCR
- 3.4 SHELTER FOR IDPS - CLUSTER LEAD: UNHCR
- 3.5 HEALTH - CLUSTER LEAD: WHO
- 3.6 NUTRITION - CLUSTER LEAD: UNICEF
- 3.7 WATER AND SANITATION - CLUSTER LEAD: UNICEF
- 3.8 EDUCATION - CLUSTER LEAD: UNICEF
- 3.9 EARLY RECOVERY (CROSS-CUTTING) - CLUSTER LEAD: UNDP
- 3.10 GENDER (CROSS-CUTTING)
- 3.11 HIV/AIDS (CROSS-CUTTING) - CLUSTER LEAD: UNAIDS
- 3.12 LOGISTICS/SUPPORT - CLUSTER LEAD: WFP
- 3.13 COORDINATION/SUPPORT
- Table II: Summary of Requirements - by Sector
ANNEX II. ESTIMATED RURAL POPULATION BY REGION IN HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCY AND ACUTE FOOD AND LIVELIHOOD CRISIS
ANNEX III. LONG-TERM NUTRITION TRENDS (1999 - 2005)
ANNEX IV. NUMBER OF ORGANISATIONS CONSULTED DURING CAP CONSULTATION PROCESS 2007
ANNEX V. CISS (FORMER SACB) AND IASC ORGANIGRAMME
ANNEX VI. UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES IN SOMALIA
ANNEX VII. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
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