Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP): Mid-Year Review of the Humanitarian Appeal 2005 for Somalia

Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)
The CAP is much more than an appeal for money. It is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:

a) strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
b) resource mobilisation (leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal);
c) coordinated programme implementation;
d) joint monitoring and evaluation;
e) revision, if necessary; and
f) reporting on results.

The CHAP is a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or region and includes the following elements:

a) A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
b) An assessment of needs;
c) best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
d) Stakeholder analysis, i.e. who does what and where;
e) A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
f) Prioritised response plans; and
g) A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.

The CHAP is the foundation for developing a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break or natural disasters occur, a Flash Appeal. The CHAP can also serve as a reference for organisations deciding not to appeal for funds through a common framework. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Country Team. This team mirrors the IASC structure at headquarters and includes UN agencies, and standing invitees, i.e. the International Organization for Migration, the Red Cross Movement, and NGOs that belong to ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR. Non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can be included, and other key stakeholders in humanitarian action, in particular host governments and donors, should be consulted.

The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal document. The document is launched globally each November to enhance advocacy and resource mobilisation. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors in June of each year.

Donors provide resources to appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals. The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of donor contributions and can be found on

In sum, the CAP is about how the aid community collaborates to provide civilians in need the best protection and assistance available, on time.


From a humanitarian perspective, two key developments occurred since the launch of the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) for 2005. The good performance of the Deyr (short) rains which brought to an end four consecutive years of drought and the Indian Ocean Tsunami which struck the north-eastern coast of Somalia on 26 December 2004. Overall, the extended effects of four years of drought, which has adversely impacted livelihoods and coping mechanisms combined with chronic food insecurity, and more recently flooding has exacerbated the suffering of Somalis. The operating environment during the first half of 2005 continued to be characterised by recurrent conflict due to intra and inter clan fighting, and intermittent access to vulnerable communities particularly in the south and central parts of the country.

The 2004/2005 Deyr rains allowed for the recovery of 200,000 drought affected people, however, approximately 500,000 continue to be in a state of humanitarian emergency or a livelihood crisis. The current underperformance of the Gu (long) rains, combined with localised flooding in southern Somalia, raises concerns that the limited recovery achieved following the Deyr rains may be reversed. In May, over 12,000 people in flood affected riverine communities of Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions, as well as populations in Hargeisa and Burao in 'Somaliland' affected by local flash flooding were provided with food and non-food emergency relief assistance by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the National Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in cooperation with local authorities and partners.

In addition to the 500,000 people affected by the extended effects of the drought, approximately 370,000-400,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) living throughout Somalia, with the majority in the south and central regions, remain vulnerable. This brings the total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance to approximately 900,000. The protective environment for IDPs remains unchanged as they continue to be affected by the impact of years of conflict and on-going insecurity. Lack of security remains a major impediment to ensuring access to vulnerable populations in need of urgent assistance.

Occurring at a time when many parts of the country were beginning to recover from the prolonged drought and periodic floods, the tsunami further exacerbated the already dire humanitarian situation in Somalia. Living conditions of an estimated 44,000 people were negatively affected and many required urgent humanitarian assistance. Shelter was damaged or destroyed, wells were contaminated and many fishing boats and equipment were either damaged or lost. The humanitarian community responded quickly to meet the immediate life saving needs of the affected population. Local communities, United Nations agencies, and NGOs were proactive in mobilising assistance and responding to identified needs. WFP, Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), UNICEF, Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), World Health Organization (WHO), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Holland, Shilale Environment Concern (SHILCON), Diakonia, Galkayo Education Centre for Peace and Development (GECPD) and Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (VSF) Suisse moved quickly to either pre-position or distribute relief items, including food, medicine, non-food items (shelter materials, cooking utensils, and blankets) and clean drinking water.

Despite the existing operational challenges, United Nations agencies and NGOs have persevered in addressing some of the needs of the most vulnerable populations. Inadequate funding combined with insecurity and the resultant lack of access has been the major impediments to the delivery of assistance where it is most needed.

In light of the changes in the context and consequent humanitarian needs, financial requirements have been revised to US$ 162.3 million. As of 10 June 2005, donors had provided 39% leaving a total of US$ 99.2 million for the remainder of 2005.


New and challenging developments occurred in the operational environment, which required a considerable degree of flexibility on the part of the humanitarian community in order to quickly respond and adapt to evolving situations.

The end of 2004 saw the establishment of a Transitional Federal Parliament, the election of a Transitional President and nomination of a Transitional Federal Government (TFG). The debate continues within the divided Somali Transitional Federal Institutions about contentious and inter-linked issues of relocation into Somalia and the presence of foreign troops. Continued division on the two issues is likely to heighten the level of violence in the country and impact negatively on the current fragile stability if the situation is not timely addressed.

While the TFG has not yet relocated into Somalia, its ability to extend its authority on the ground -- with or without backing from an Inter-Governmental Authority on Development / African Union (IGAD/AU) peace support mission - is expected to impact positively on security, create pockets of stability and eventually expand humanitarian space, particularly in the currently inaccessible parts of central and southern Somalia.

In December 2004, the South Asian tsunami hit the coast of Somalia. Northeastern Somalia was the worst affected, particularly a stretch of about 650 km between Hafun and Garacad. The tsunami further exacerbated the dire humanitarian situation, with particular burden on Puntland, which had already been hit by a series of shocks: three years of drought, floods, freezing rains, continued livestock ban, and some civil tension. Impacting in different ways on an estimated 44,000 people (7,300 households), the tsunami caused a shift in wealth groups and resulted in loss of life, destruction of infrastructure, damage to water sources, and loss of livelihood assets. A large number of fishing boats and equipment were either damaged or lost. Given that the majority of the local communities rely on fishing as their primary source of income, humanitarian assistance and livelihood support was needed.

Humanitarian organisations were quick to respond, delivering food, medicine, shelter materials, cooking utensils, blankets and clean drinking water. A Flash Appeal was launched appealing for US$ 10,179,418, in the sectors of food, shelter, water and sanitation, health, agriculture, and coordination of humanitarian assistance and support services. Several agencies also embarked on recovery programmes focused on shelter construction, environmental assessments, water, sanitation, and rehabilitation of schools, infrastructure and health facilities. The generous and timely response by donors -- through the Appeal as well as outside mechanisms - largely facilitated the response and an inter-agency mission deployed in late January/early February ascertained that funding for the critical humanitarian needs had by and large been met.

Still, given that the next fishing season is not until October, around 22,000 people are in need of resource transfer for the next four months. In addition, destitute pastoralists and IDPs were also affected by the tsunami. Having lost everything in the drought, they had moved to the coast in search of alternative livelihoods, only to suffer again. Continued relief and livelihood assistance targeting these groups is therefore required, bearing in mind the equitability of resource allocation to close-by communities who suffered from other equally debilitating shocks as the tsunami. Building on the existing humanitarian efforts, additional recovery activities will facilitate the shift toward rehabilitation and development.

According to Food Security Assessment Unit's (FSAU) post Deyr assessment, good Deyr 2004/2005 rains brought an end to more than four consecutive years of drought. Yet, an estimated 500,000 still remain in a state of humanitarian emergency or livelihood crisis, in addition to a vulnerable population of 370,000 to 400,000 IDPs. In the north, given the multiple shocks suffered in the area, pastoralist recovery will occur only after a considerable lag-time and hinge on the next Gu and Deyr seasons. In central Somalia, recovery was hampered by recurrent civil strife, which limits access to markets, grazing and other resources. The Juba Riverine and Gedo regions record the highest malnutrition rates and are beset with chronic food insecurity. These 900,000 vulnerable people require immediate humanitarian assistance in the form of resource transfers and livelihood support.

Inter-clan fighting continued in the south and central regions. In April, Somali/Kenyan cross-border inter-clan fighting in El Wak district of Gedo region resulted in large-scale displacement (reportedly as high as 15,000). Insecurity has so far prevented a full assessment of people affected and few international organisations operate in the area. The displaced have not received assistance since the fighting erupted, which given the already dire humanitarian situation in Gedo, makes them highly vulnerable. The situation continues to be monitored closely and discussions are taking place on negotiation for access and potential response should the opportunity arise. Insecurity, however, could hinder a full response.

The protective environment for IDPs in southern Somalia, particularly the 250,000 IDPs residing in Mogadishu remains unchanged. The highly volatile security environment continues to restrict access to these communities, which remain vulnerable to harassment, exploitation and extortion. In Somaliland and Puntland, United Nations agencies in partnership with national and international NGOs have established IDP working groups both of which have developed strategic plans. These provide guidance for the implementation of effective assistance to IDPs.

In mid April 2005, heavy rain and floods hit Somaliland, causing widespread damage to infrastructure. Agencies responded in cooperation with the local authorities and work is ongoing on demolished infrastructure rehabilitation. It is estimated that only 26% of the population had access to safe drinking water, therefore damage caused by the floods forced large amounts of people to use contaminated surface water, hence the risk of outbreak of water-borne diseases. Diarrhoea and malaria are among the main reasons for mortality, especially among children. Above normal rainfall in the Ethiopian catchments of the Shabelle and Juba rivers resulted in rising levels of the river flow in southern Somalia. While the situation has not yet developed into a major flood crisis, upwards of 10,000 people have required emergency assistance while close monitoring and coordination mechanisms are in place to develop response plans.

Chronic food insecurity and malnutrition persist. Unacceptably high malnutrition levels exist throughout Somalia, even in populations that are considered relatively food secure. Information collected through the Nutrition Project of FSAU continues to show that the lack of a regular, varied, high quality diet is one of the most important factors contributing to this problem. Many households survive on a diet consisting of only two or three items and experience significant deficits in some nutritious foods during various periods of the year. Many of the commonly consumed foods are also likely to be low in some of the major micronutrients. The likely presence and/or development of anti-nutrients in foods during processing, preservation and storage is also inadequately understood.


Given the progress realised in addressing the needs of the tsunami affected populations and the relative achievement in attending to the needs of the majority of populations in need, the current Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) strategy - which aims at addressing humanitarian needs resulting from the impact of more than four years of drought, exacerbated by inter and intra clan violence, and insecurity - remains valid and adequate as far as the prevailing humanitarian situation in Somalia is concerned.

An inter-agency tsunami assessment mission comprising representatives of NGOs, United Nations agencies and Puntland authorities confirmed in February 2005 that the emergency responses in the sectors of health, water and sanitation, non-food items (NFI) and food had largely met the identified humanitarian and recovery needs of the affected population.

In contrast, the needs of an estimated 900,000 Somalis remain largely unmet. The good performance of the Deyr rains has led to the recovery of an estimated 200,000 people out of the estimated total of 700,000 affected by drought, nevertheless an estimated 500,000 people still remain in a state of humanitarian emergency and livelihood crisis. In addition to the above, between 370,000 and 400,000 IDPs remain particularly vulnerable. Assistance to drought-affected populations remain below needs, aid in terms of humanitarian assistance and protection of IDPs is either not adequate or not available, malnutrition rates remain high, particularly in regions of southern Somalia and access to basic services remains an issue of concern.

Given the continued needs of the 900,000 affected people and the unchanged humanitarian context, the CAP strategy remains valid. Agencies continue to respond to the identified needs of the affected populations in accessible areas through a pragmatic mix of humanitarian, recovery and development activities that seek to achieve the strategic goals of the CAP.

Agencies aim to promote and support the establishment of an environment conducive to respect for human rights, particularly of vulnerable groups such as IDPs, returnees and minority clans; provision and enhancement of access to basic services for vulnerable communities, especially water, sanitation, education, and health; support to the capacity-building of civil society and new governance structures to protect vulnerable communities; and support to livelihoods to increase employment opportunities in order to help vulnerable communities break free from the negative cycles of poverty, exploitation and relief dependency.

During the implementation of the CHAP, a number of humanitarian actors faced constraints and difficulties. The main challenge was insecurity, compounded by political instability, severe access difficulties, funding bottlenecks and deficit of presence or capacity of implementing partners, particularly in south central zones.

In view of these operational difficulties, specifically in the central and southern areas where needs are greatest, the impact of humanitarian activities remained limited.

The Somalia 2005 CAP requested an amount of US$ 164,463,170 for 96 projects in eleven sectors which aim at addressing the humanitarian, recovery and development needs of an estimated population of approximately seven million people.

The revised Appeal now stands at US$ 162,266,738 to target around 900,000 vulnerable people in Somalia. As of June 10, 2005, donors had funded US$ 63,028,197 amounting to 39% of the Appeal.

Since the development of the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/ Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sector response for the CAP, many activities have been carried out through funding outside the CAP. The Somali HIV/AIDS application submitted by Somalia Aid Coordination Body (SACB) Health Sector Committee to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was approved and the project started in May 2005. Subsequently, a further UK£ 500,000 (approx. US$ 905,600) were confirmed by the Department of International Development, United Kingdom (DFID) based on a joint resource mobilisation proposal by the Somali HIV/AIDS response partners. The additional coordination requirements due to the need to harmonise the US$ 5 million per annum through the GFATM, the DFID grant and other bilateral funding and programming efforts has

considerably slowed down implementation activities. However, these processes are crucial in developing a coordinated and effective multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS. Due to the specific criteria and structural requirements the larger funding mechanisms place on recipient organisations, as well as remaining programming gaps, the HIV/AIDS sector is in need of funds appealed for.

The needs for WFP Protracted Relief and Rehabilitation Operation (PRRO) food operations have been re-adjusted from US$ 45.2 million to US$ 34.5 million owing to the exceptionally good 2004/2005 Deyr rain performance. Thanks to carry-over in stocks and confirmed contributions at the beginning of the year, of the revised US$ 34.5 million, some 64% is resourced.

Progress has been achieved in enhancing integration and livelihoods of returnees and IDPs through the provision of basic services and economic recovery through income generation activities, yet inadequate funding has been a major constraint. The caseload of returnees and IDPs has drastically risen due to the effects of drought, tsunami, floods and related natural shocks which has implied a corresponding demand of both financial and human resources.

In view of safety implications on activities in Somalia, and given the growing threats to the security of aid workers, addressing security issues remains of critical importance to the delivery of aid assistance. The project for the "Enhancement of security environment" submitted by Distribution Standard System (DSS), aims to enable the efficient and effective conduct of humanitarian operations in insecure areas. So far, the project remains uncovered. Lack of resources toward this activity, particularly in implementing security measures for common United Nations facilities such as airstrips, will profoundly impact on the delivery of aid in Somalia for both the United Nations and International NGO (INGO) community.

Similarly, mine clearance projects have suffered from lack of funding resulting in no progress in activity.

It is widely believed that a gap relating to financial reporting from agencies has made it quite difficult to ascertain the exact funding levels. Regardless of the poor levels of funding within the CAP framework, it is difficult to conclude that humanitarian, recovery and development activities were seriously affected, as resources provided by the donor community outside the CAP remain significant. Agencies such as the WHO have relied on internal funding to start up priority and essential activities included in the CHAP. Considerable funding for Somalia is not channelled through the CAP, particularly for longer-term development oriented initiatives.


The CHAP political scenarios have changed. A President, Government and Parliament have been established and are engaging with the international community. Still, the TFG has not yet relocated and internal division within it could play out different scenarios:

a) The TFG relocates to Baidoa and Jowhar until Mogadishu is secured with acceptance by all actors in the government. IGAD/AU deploys a peace support mission, the TFG receives substantial diplomatic and financial support and extends its authority and fulfils its responsibilities. Humanitarian access and space increase substantially.

b) The TFG does not relocate in the country in an effective manner and violence in southern central areas heightens in reaction to developments. The AU/IGAD deployment remains unresolved and a 'wait and see' attitude is prevalent among donors and members of the international community.

c) Divisions within the TFG do not reconcile leading to a split and eventual collapse of the government. Widespread conflict resurges, with rearming and proliferation of uncontrolled militias. Insecurity leads to shrinking humanitarian space. Somaliland, and to a lesser extent Puntland, consolidate claims to sovereignty and autonomy.


In 2005, United Nations agencies and NGOs pursued their work, where possible intensifying activities inside Somalia, in particular in the delivery of protection and humanitarian assistance to the vulnerable groups adopting a pragmatic mix of humanitarian and recovery/transition initiatives. Particular focus was directed toward addressing HIV/AIDS, education and protection needs of IDPs, returned refugees, and minority groups. Insecurity and resulting lack of access have been the major constraints preventing the aid community from providing more assistance as well as ensuring the continuity and impact of existing programmes. In view of the prevailing humanitarian needs and context, United Nations agencies and partners agreed to retain the strategic goals elaborated during CAP discussions, namely:

- Save lives and help vulnerable communities become more resilient to crises;

- Enhance the protection of and respect for the human rights and dignity of Somalis;

- Help existing and emerging governance structures, civil society groups and communities to gain the necessary capacities and skills to function effectively and contribute to the stability and economic development of Somalia;

Some of the progress achieved to date is highlighted in the monitoring matrix attached in the annex.


Although under funding of the education sector remains a major constraint, some progress has been made. Efforts to improve access and quality of learning at the primary level continued to be given priority with special emphasis to the girl child. This has been achieved largely through the combined interaction of teacher training and provision of quality textbooks and other instructional materials for grades 1-8 in Somalia, as well through construction and rehabilitation of schools. Progress continues to be made in the area of community and parent involvement in primary education management through Community Education Committees (CECs). More schools have formed CECs, creating an enabling environment for increasing enrolment, and improvement of primary school funding and administration.

Provision of Non-Formal Education (NFE) to both adult and youth has provided an opportunity for an increasing number of persons to acquire literacy, numeracy and life skills. On the other hand vocational training has continued to be provided in a number of centres, enabling youth and ex-combatants an opportunity improve their livelihoods. An increase in demand for adult non-formal education has been observed and one of the providers has incorporated the income generating activities within the programme. Secondary education is slowly picking up with more secondary schools being constructed and rising student enrolment.

All these modest achievements have been made despite severe under-funding of the sector, which has been a major constraint. Other constraints include logistical delays on the part of service providers, weaknesses and unforeseen delays in the supply chain, problems accessing materials and goods within Somalia, political uncertainties and the unsettling effects of sporadic violence particularly in South Central Somalia.

Lessons learnt include the invaluable role of partnerships and information sharing and the vital role that NGOs can play in sustaining and moving project implementation forward when the minimum security operating standards of the larger agencies result in a suspension of their activities.

In the HIV/AIDS sector, some progress has been made against the CAP sector objectives, both regarding awareness raising and advocacy activities, as well as preparations among the health sector for introduction and enhanced provision of HIV/AIDS-related services. Monitoring activities and collection of strategic information are due to begin in the second half of 2005, so while verification of progress is forthcoming it is not yet available at the time of the MYR. Most of the aspects of the CAP sector strategy will be integrated into joint strategies for: 1) HIV/AIDS-related communication aspects; and, 2) Integrated Prevention, Care, Treatment and Support. All health partners in reviewing baseline information on the health system in Somalia as well as compiling an initial database on health facilities have made progress in the development of the health sector recovery strategy.

The protection/rule of law/human rights sector strategy and objectives continue to be relevant. From a child protection and human rights perspective increased efforts have taken place in the last months to provide a systematic orientation on the human rights based approach to programming for United Nations staff as well as local partners, such as authorities and civil society organisations involved in community mobilisation and social development activities.

The first half of 2005 has seen a lot of progress in the field of collaboration and joint initiatives among partners on FGM eradication and abandonment, a central theme for the sector with implications on human rights, child rights and gender equality. The Somalia Aid Coordination Body Female Genital Mutilation (SACB FGM) Task Force, operating under the HIV/AIDS Working Group, has become an independent Working Group and has a very active and committed membership from United Nations agencies, international and local NGOs as well as major donors. The FGM Working Group has identified two key fields for action: 1) The elaboration of a joint strategy for communication in the field of FGM eradication; and, 2) the elaboration of a joint strategy for advocacy for legal and policy change in this field.

Progress has been made in the provision of basic services particularly in Somaliland. This includes community markets, Mother and Child Health (MCH), water supply projects, primary schools and vocational training centres in regions like Togdheer, Awdal, and Galbeed, and income generation.

Assessments to establish needs and priorities for IDPs and returnees have been completed in a number of regions for both Puntland and Somaliland. Such information is critical for better programming by stakeholders. Despite the increase in the caseload especially of IDPs due to natural disasters, sector objectives remain the same.

The effects of the Tsunami and of the recent flooding called for a change in the response plans which concentrated in particular on:

- Assisting Tsunami affected populations especially along the coastal areas to recover from the shock. This will include revival of the fishing activities, income generation projects especially the women groups in centres like Haffun, Eyl, Garacad and Bender Beyla;

- Providing emergency support to IDPs and returnees affected by natural disasters like recent floods in Hargeisa and Burao;

- Promoting labour intensive activities for the IDPs and returnees populations.

The fact that the Tsunami has captured attention of the donors, headquarters of all agencies and the Somali authorities, has somehow overshadowed the regular work of the international community and has created a wave of inflation of charges for services that are vital for the implementation of activities in the country (e.g., vehicle hire).

Increasingly, the international community is providing assistance to impoverished communities living in squalid conditions on the outskirts of urban centres and in makeshift settlements elsewhere. They comprise IDPs, returnees, impoverished pastoralists, tsunami/drought/flood victims and other destitute. In this connection coordination and joint action/programming become of paramount importance to increase impact on the ground.

Furthermore, the Tsunami tragedy and impact in Somalia has shown the need for not only providing access to basic services for affected and vulnerable populations but also the importance of paying attention to the psychosocial care and support need of at-risk communities. A strategy for community-based psychosocial care and support for vulnerable children and their families has been developed, in close collaboration with all key partners, and is presently being implemented in the country through intensive training and capacity building initiatives targeting local authorities (health, education, justice and social welfare officials) as well as civil society representatives.

Child protection advocates have undertaken major community mobilisation activities throughout Somalia in order to raise awareness on issues relating to the protection of children against violence and abuse and encourage duty-bearers to take on their responsibilities. Advocates have disseminated information on child rights and child protection to children and young people themselves, which are actively participating in activities to prevent child protection violations within their communities. Child protection advocates have also continued to disseminate the child protection study in a participatory

and appropriately styled forum at the village level. Coordination efforts have increased in the field child protection. Nine functional child protection networks continue to meet on a regular basis throughout the country. The support to these networks includes information sharing, technical support on specific protection issues, capacity building, monitoring and reporting protection violations and coordination with other organisations as well as international policy as it relates to abuse, neglect, violence, discrimination and exploitation.

Several organisations have initiated efforts to coordinate initiatives in the field of monitoring, reporting and advocacy on human rights and child protection violations in Somalia. Practical and visible outcomes of these efforts should become visible in the second half of 2005. Increased efforts have been undertaken by international organisations to support the capacity building of local civil society actors active in the fields of human rights, child rights and child protection.

While the 2004/2005 Deyr rains brought an end to the four year drought, the effects of the drought are still being felt and 500,000 people remain in need of assistance. The food security sector objectives therefore remain unchanged and efforts continue to improve food security and diversify livelihoods.

An economic study to identify potential economic recovery activities in Eastern Sanaag has been finalised - focusing on water, infrastructure, population, grazing resources and livestock migration, power and telecommunications, transport, housing, employment, climate and rainfall, environment and vegetation -- resulted in a report which will be made available to aid agencies at the end of June 2005.

Cash relief, and cash/food for work activities are providing continued relief and offering beneficiaries learning opportunities to develop alternative livelihoods. Communities in the areas of operation are predominantly pastoralist thus converting to alternative livelihoods comes with some challenges. Still, conditions have left most beneficiaries with little option.

FSAU's May Nutrition Update reported an overall improvement in the nutrition situation in northern Somalia and the Hiran region and related the progress to ongoing initiatives in the regions in terms food, non-food items and cash assistance. According to the update, partners operating food for work, and cash transfer projects have also helped to offset debts and improve dietary intake Notwithstanding this progress, assistance to these communities will be required in the long-term order to have a significant impact on livelihoods.

While the Gu rains may have interrupted micro-projects targeting rangeland rehabilitation, they have also contributed to improved pasture and livestock conditions. Rangeland recovery is already visible in some areas. In the longer term, the lack of government structures and policies to establish and enforce standardised rangeland management policies remains a challenge.

United Nations agencies and NGOs continue to be instrumental in assisting rural and urban communities, particularly vulnerable groups, in rehabilitating, operating and maintaining their water supply systems, promoting hygiene and sanitation and assisting in the rebuilding of infrastructure.


Please see Annexes I, II, and II.


Response to the humanitarian, recovery and development needs in Somalia varied considerably, depending on the prevailing security conditions in the region, and the presence and capacity of actors on the ground.

While response to the identified humanitarian and recovery needs of the tsunami affected communities along the coastal areas of Puntland have so far been adequate, the humanitarian needs of the remaining drought affected communities and IDPs remain of concern and still require close monitoring, particularly in the inaccessible southern and central parts of the country.

The recent flooding of the Shabelle and Juba rivers in central and southern zones, though so far localised, have resulted in evacuation of villages and caused damage to farmland. Over 10,000 households have so far received assistance. While not yet a flood emergency, localised flooding is impacting on regions already beset with high malnutrition and mortality rates, exacerbating the overall humanitarian situation. Chronic insecurity and lack of access further aggravate the problem.

On a positive note, the FSAU Food Security and Nutrition Monthly Brief for May 2005 confirmed that Gu rains have begun throughout most regions, with early indications of a good season throughout the Northeast, Northwest, and Central areas. However, some cropping areas in the South indicate a late start of the Gu rains, including Lower Shabelle, Gedo, Bay, and Bakool possibly affecting agricultural production, although it is too early in the season to make projections.

Delays in the relocation of the TFG inside Somalia due to the existing divisions among TFG members over relocation and the deployment of a peace support mission is expected to maintain the status quo, characterised by tension and continued localised clan conflict. On the other hand, progress on relocation, leading to the government extending its authority on the ground, would impact positively on security, create pockets of stability and eventually expand humanitarian space.

In view of the current situation, it is anticipated that existing humanitarian needs will continue throughout the rest of the year and into 2006. Agencies and partners will continue to deliver assistance in accessible areas, through a pragmatic mix of relief, recovery and development activities. Donors are urged to support the efforts of agencies on the ground to reach more vulnerable populations and to ensure the sustainability and impact of existing programmes.


1. Executive Summary

2. Changes in the Context and Humanitarian Consequences

3. Review of the Common Humanitarian Action Plan

3.1 Scenarios
3.2 Strategic Objectives
3.3 Response Plans

4. Money and Projects

5. Conclusion

Annex I. CAP 2005 Progress Report-CAP Goals and Objectives

Annex II. New Projects

Annex III. Table I. Summary of Requirements and Contributions by Appealing Organisations and by Sector

Annex IV. Acronyms and Abbreviations

Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.

Full Original Mid-Term Review [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]

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