Cholera Standard Case Management Protocol
AWD/Cholera is a bacterial disease predominantly transmitted through the fecal-oral route and resulting in an explosive onset of diarrhea which could be fatal in a short period of time. Rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes causes hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and death in 48 hours.
AWD/Cholera has been endemic in the Somalia with the most common cause of outbreaks being the serogroup 01, Ogawa biotype El Tor.
Periodic outbreaks had been known to occur in areas inundated by floods and subsequent contamination of drinking water by bacterium Vibrio AWD/Cholera present in sewers and leaking septic tanks. Unsanitary conditions, inadequate toilet facilities and lack of clean water in most evacuation centers as well as in the inundated communities foster the spread of AWD/Cholera.
Measures for the prevention of AWD/Cholera have not changed much in recent decades, and mostly consist of sanitation and providing clean potable water for the populations potentially affected. Health education and good food hygiene are equally important in prevention. In particular, systematic hand washing should be taught.
The cornerstone of treatment is still fluid replacement at the early onset of the disease.
The role of antibiotics is adjunctive since it shortens the duration of illness by rapidly clearing the organism from the body. Once an outbreak is detected, the usual intervention strategy is to reduce mortality by ensuring prompt access to treatment and controlling the spread of the disease.