Assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights: Report of an independent expert (E/CN.4/2003/115)

UN Document
Originally published

Fifty-ninth session
Item 19 of the provisional agenda


Assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights

Report of the independent expert, Mr. Ghanim Alnajjar, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/88

Executive summary

Political and other changes over the last year in Somalia brought about an environment in which the promotion and protection of human rights have been fragile and inconsistent. The fluidity and complexity of the socio-political context rendered some rights in some regions vitally relevant and acknowledged, whereas in others, rights were fundamentally superseded. While the enormity of the challenge remains evident, so too does the will of the majority of Somali people to move beyond conflict and chaos to a life of peace and productivity.

The independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia is appointed by the Secretary-General in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/86 of 10 March 1993. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Secretary-General to appoint for a period of one year a person with wide experience in the field of human rights as an independent expert to assist the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Somalia in the development of a long-term programme of advisory services for re-establishing human rights and the rule of law, including a democratic constitution, as well as the eventual holding of periodic and genuine elections by universal suffrage and secret ballot. The mandate of the independent expert (hereinafter "the expert") has been renewed on a yearly basis since that date, and has been continuously executed, with the exception of the period September 2000-May 2001 when a new independent expert was being recruited.

Dr. Ghanim Alnajjar was appointed by the Secretary-General, effective 3 June 2001, as the independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia. His first mission was undertaken from 28 August to 7 September 2001, the report of which is contained in E/CN.4/2002/119.

The expert undertook a mission to Kenya and Somalia from 26 August to 6 September 2002. This involved visits to the two main regions of "Puntland" and "Somaliland" in Somalia, as well as to Nairobi. Attempts to visit other regions in Somalia were curtailed by security restrictions. In "Puntland" he met with the Somali President and other members of his administration, United Nations staff and members of international and national non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and visited the police station and camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Afterwards, he visited "Somaliland" where he met with the president, United Nations staff and local NGOs. During his stay in Kenya, he had the opportunity to meet with Nairobi-based United Nations staff, and representatives of the international community and international NGOs.

The period covered by this report has been one of both consolidation and uncertainty. Somalia remains without a central government. While "Somaliland" in the north-west has maintained calm, providing an environment for expanded commerce, construction and political development, "Puntland" in the north-east, previously noted for its relative peace, was the scene of significant violence during a period of constitutional crisis and slowly regained a modicum of stability. In Bay and Bakool regions, a new South West State of Somalia was declared amidst battles for political positions. The rest of the country witnessed the shrinking authority of the Transitional National Government (TNG) in the capital, and the resurgence of activity on the part of faction leaders, with attendant violence, shifting alliances and volatility. In October, a peace conference was held under the auspices of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD). The conference brought together 24 faction leaders, TNG and representatives of civil society organizations. For the first time, all armed factions agreed to participate in the peace talks. However, "Somaliland’s" administration decided to abstain. The conference was divided into three phases with the first devoted to agenda-setting and the signing of a declaration on the cessation of hostilities during the talks, the second to committee work on key issues (federalism, demobilization, land and property disputes, economic planning, conflict resolution and international relations) and the third to the formation of an interim government. At the time of the writing of this report, all factions had signed a truce declaration and the conference was in its second phase, which was scheduled to last for a period of four to six weeks.

The self-declared autonomous region of "Somaliland" continued to be the most secure and experienced a remarkably peaceful transition following the death of the President in May. While the judicial system continued to be weak and inadequately catered for the needs of Somali women, efforts were made to reform the judiciary and the administration appointed its first woman Minister. Civil society maintained its active role and grew even stronger through its own efforts at capacity building, while the media also enjoyed significant freedom, marred by one case of imprisonment in August of a journalist for "misreporting".

In "Puntland", the constitutional crisis which prevailed for most of the year impacted negatively on the right to life and security of the person, as well as on the rights to freedom of association and to freedom of opinion and expression. The conflict also precipitated the displacement of the local population, giving rise to a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons.

In the Bay and Bakool regions, south-western Somalia, the fighting for the chairmanship of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) that followed the setting up of the South West State of Somalia contributed to prolonged tension in the area. This involved violations of the right to life and security of the person, and destroyed structures which had formerly only minimally catered for health and educational needs. Furthermore, members of the local communities fled the region in large numbers.

In the south, the diminishing authority of TNG and the correspondingly more vigorous activities of faction leaders further eroded security, notably in the period preceding the IGAD peace conference, held in Eldoret, Kenya, in October. While TNG made efforts towards strengthening law enforcement in the capital, there were four cases of kidnapping of United Nations staff in Mogadishu, as well as increasing incidents of clashes between factions and other militias, and attendant displacement of thousands of residents. Recruitment of child soldiers continued to be prevalent.

During the his annual visit the independent expert was especially struck by the conditions of IDPs, for whom the provision of security, and basic sanitation and educational services remained seriously inadequate.

The expert concluded that there could be no lasting peace in the whole of Somalia without adherence to the principles of human rights and without making respect for such principles the basis of any political process.

The expert remains convinced of the vital role of civil society in monitoring, promoting and protecting human rights and is heartened by efforts to build their capacities, notably with the sponsorship of donor Governments. He urges the international community to further support and facilitate their work.


1. At its fifty-eighth session, on 26 April 2002, the Commission on Human Rights adopted resolution 2002/88, in which it decided, inter alia, to extend the mandate of the independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia for a further year, and requested him to report to the Commission at its fifty-ninth session.

2. The independent expert wishes to express his gratitude to the people of Somalia for the hospitality with which he was welcomed in that country. The freedom of movement afforded to him, and the willingness of people from all the areas visited to engage in discussions were critical in fulfilling his mission. In particular, he wishes to express his thanks to members of civil society organizations, human rights defenders and individuals who provided him with information. The expert is especially grateful to the local authorities in "Somaliland" and "Puntland" for facilitating his visit, for meeting with him, and for proving receptive to some of his requests.

3. Meetings were held with the staff of United Nations agencies, to whom he is grateful for sharing with him their insights and experience. He wishes to extend special thanks to the UNDP Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator and to the staff of the United Nations Coordination Unit (UNCU) for their logistical and public relations support. Special thanks are also due to the staff of UNCU in Bosasso for committed and effective support.

4. The expert wishes to thank the representatives of the diplomatic/donor community with whom he met in Nairobi, including representatives of Egypt, the European Union, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, and the United States of America. The meetings made for useful exchanges of information and perspectives on the activities and approaches of the international community.

5. The expert is also grateful to the representatives of Diakonia, a Swedish NGO, and People’s Aid , a Norwegian NGO, who provided him with helpful information on ongoing and prospective activities and conditions in Somalia.


6. Over the past year, the Transitional National Government (TNG) had made no progress in expanding the scope of its authority in the national capital, Mogadishu, where it continues to control a limited area. Outside Mogadishu, TNG’s influence is limited to Kismayo area, still under the control of Juba Valley Alliance, a militia loosely allied to TNG.

7. On 29 June 2002, the Prime Minister of TNG, Mr. Hassan Abshir Farah, stated during a press conference that his Government would like the Security Council to authorize the deployment of an international force to disarm Somali factions opposed to his Government. Mr. Farah also expressed the desire of his Government to have the League of Arab States, the United States of America and the European Union as mediators in the Somalia conflict. The opposition factions grouping, the Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC), rejected both requests and continued to question the legitimacy of TNG itself.

8. The IGAD-sponsored peace conference for Somalia started in Eldoret, Kenya, on 15 October 2002. For the first time, all the warring parties in Somalia decided to attend. TNG presented a position paper in which it called for the talks to be based on previous Security Council resolutions calling on the Somali parties to seek a completion of the previous conference, held in Arta, Djibouti. Additionally, TNG emphasized the need for the international community (especially, the United Nations, the European Union, the League of Arab States, the African Union and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, as well as the five permanent members of the Security Council) to participate in the Eldoret conference.

9. Despite the fact that TNG’s demands have not been fully met, as there is only a low-level presence of the international community, the participants in the conference managed to sign a joint ceasefire declaration at the end of October 2002. At the time of the writing of this report, the conference has moved to its second phase during which six committees were set up to deal with specific issues. The third and last phase of the conference is expected to begin in early 2003 and would be devoted to power sharing and the selection of an interim administration.

10. While peace initiatives had been underway for the most part of last year, fighting continued unabated. On 3 September intra-Abgal fighting resumed in Mogadishu, leaving 20 people dead and 50 wounded. In Gedo, intra-Merehan fighting flared up in May, and the situation remains tense, as two rival groups are competing for leadership of the clan. Similarly, a split in the leadership of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) followed the declaration in April 2002 of the creation of a "South-western Regional State of Somalia". In July, forces loyal to RRA’s leader, Colonel Hassan Mohammed Nur "Shatigadud", fought in Baidoa against forces loyal to his two deputies. Many civilians caught in the crossfire lost their lives. Mediation by clan elders succeeded in bringing about a temporary truce. However, intermittent fighting continued through the beginning of November 2002. On 13 November, while "Shatigadud" and his two deputies who have been fighting against him were attending the Eldoret peace conference, the local commanders of their forces reportedly signed a joint declaration in which they pledged not to fight against each other. In "Puntland", year-long fighting has led to the emergence of Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf as winner and the situation in the region is currently witnessing a degree of stability. "Somaliland" continues to enjoy peace, with municipal and parliamentary elections scheduled for mid-December 2002.

11. The independent expert welcomes the IGAD-sponsored peace process and urges the international community to lend its support to and express its interest in this process. The independent expert notes with particular interest the EU Council of Ministers’ decision during its 2447th meeting on 22 July 2002, in which it, inter alia, called for the imposition of "smart sanctions" on faction leaders who prove to be actively blocking peace efforts in Somalia. He calls upon the Commission on Human Rights to recommend to the Secretary-General and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) the undertaking of a study on the applicability to Somali warlords of sanctions, such as the freezing of their foreign assets, the imposition of travel bans, stripping them of their foreign passports, the imposition of business boycotts and the establishment of a monitoring mechanism to enforce the Security Council mandated arms embargo on Somalia.


12. Allegations of massive past human rights violations persist, and attempts have been made to seek international community assistance with respect to further investigations, notably regarding alleged mass grave sites in several areas. To this end, an initial forensic assessment by Physicians for Human Rights was undertaken in 1997. In March 2002 a short-term preliminary study on past human rights violations, jointly commissioned by the United Nations Coordination Unit (UNCU)/UNDP-Somalia and OHCHR, was completed. This project has been extended with UNDP funding to cover areas of southern Somalia and is expected to be finalized by the end of December 2002. In September 2001 the expert wrote to the Secretary-General, urging him to "present for the consideration of the Security Council a proposal for the formation of a Committee of Experts to investigate allegations of past atrocities in Somalia", an effort which he continues to pursue. Addressing past and ongoing massive human rights violations is of vital importance to the political future of Somalia. Lasting peace cannot be achieved on the basis of impunity, and it is crucial that Somalis move beyond clan recriminations towards the institutionalization of individual criminal accountability. Victims of abuses and their relatives have to be acknowledged and provided with adequate remedies.


The right to life

13. The right to life is repeatedly violated in Somalia. Security reports indicate that an estimated 488 persons were killed in faction-based or inter-clan conflict up to the end of August 2002.

14. The expert was informed that in January an estimated 40 people were killed and 60 wounded in inter-clan fighting in the Mudug region of central Somalia, allegedly initiated by revenge killings and further escalated by the scarcity of water and grazing in the area. The violence had reportedly displaced hundreds of families. In May over a dozen people were reported killed in inter-clan fighting in the middle Shabelle region of south-central Somalia, over the disputed authority of the "governor" of the region.

15. There have been reports of several incidents of heavy fighting in Bardhere in the south-west between forces of the Juba Valley Alliance and other groups supportive of TNG, and those sympathetic to SRRC, a grouping of southern factions opposed to TNG of Somalia. Until mid-February the fighting left 18 people killed, including 2 civilians, and dozens injured, and at the end of February 40 persons were killed and 50 wounded in renewed fighting. Scores also reportedly lost their lives in fighting at the end of March. Thousands of persons were reported fleeing their homes.

16. Reports reached the expert of renewed fighting since July between members of RRA, which controls the Bay and Bakool regions of south-western Somalia. Allegedly sparked by political struggles between the RRA chairman, Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud, and his two deputies, Shaykh Adan Madobe and Muhammad Ibrahim Habsade, the fighting claimed the lives of an estimated 100 people, leaving more than 200 wounded.

17. The situation is particularly grave in Mogadishu. On 22 February, a Swiss aid worker was murdered in the town of Marka, 100 kilometres south of Mogadishu. On 25 February, fighting in Mogadishu’s south-west Medina district left at least 12 people dead and an unknown number of others wounded. The conflict was reportedly between militias loyal to Mogadishu faction leader Muse Sudi Yalahow and supporters of Umar Mahmud Muhammad Finish, his former deputy. Yalahow is the leader of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance and a senior member of SRRC, while Finish joined the factions that signed a peace agreement with the TNG in the Kenyan town of Nakuru last year and is now viewed as a TNG ally. Clashes between rivals again flared up in July, ahead of the proposed peace talks in Nairobi, leaving 30 people dead and 50 wounded.

18. The expert learnt in late May that heavy fighting in Mogadishu left 60 people dead and over 100 wounded, most reportedly non-combatants, as militias loyal to Muhammad Habib, supported by the forces of faction leader Muse Sudi Yalahow, both members of SRRC, attacked the house of Dahir Shaykh Dayah, the Interior Minister of TNG. The fighting had reportedly displaced thousands of families, particularly in north Mogadishu. Renewed fighting was reported in Middle Shabelle, with 20 fatalities in related inter-clan clashes, and again resumed in early September, leaving 15 people dead and over 30 wounded in two days of fighting in north Mogadishu.

19. It is noteworthy in this regard that in January TNG issued a directive banning the carrying of weapons on the streets of Mogadishu in areas under its control. This was followed by an appeal made by TNG in July for the deployment of foreign troops to assist in the disarming and demobilization of armed militias. According to United Nations sources, there are about 10,000 militiamen in the city.

20. Several conflicting reports were brought to the expert’s attention regarding both militia and civilian casualties during conflict in "Puntland" involving intermittent clashes over the course of several months. Estimates of those killed, including both combatants and non-combatants, vary between 50 and 120 and of those injured between 100 and 150. The expert was also informed of the killing on 17 August of a traditional elder, Sultan Ahmad Mahmud Muhammad, in "Puntland" at the hands of "Puntland" security forces in mysterious circumstances.

21. Commercial vessels have occasionally been seized in Somalia, for political reasons or for ransom. In mid-August it was reported that a North Korean-registered oil tanker with its crew was hijacked by militia off the north-eastern coast of Somalia and the crew members held by their captors in the coastal village of Bareda.

Intentional attacks on United Nations personnel involved in humanitarian assistance

22. On 2 September an aircraft carrying the United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Somalia, Mr. Max Gaylard, came under fire from a local militia as it prepared to take off from Garbahaarey town in Gedo, allegedly in a dispute over payment of landing fees. No one was injured and the plane was not hit. The following day the United Nations announced that it had temporarily closed Gedo Region in south-western Somalia to United Nations flights and international staff. This restriction continues to be enforced at the time of writing the report.

Taking of hostages

23. During the period covered by the report the number of kidnappings escalated, with victims often chosen from among businessmen, politicians and local staff of international humanitarian organizations, particularly in Mogadishu. In 2002 there were four cases of kidnappings of United Nations local personnel. These involved the 28 February abduction of a UNICEF employee in Mogadishu, released on 4 March; the kidnapping on the same date of a UNDP staff member in the capital, freed a month later; the abduction in Mogadishu on 5 August of a United Nations national project staff member working for the FAO Food Security Assessment Unit, released on 10 August; and the kidnapping of another FAO employee on 27 August, subsequently freed on 4 September. It was also reported that, on 15 May, Somali faction leader Colonel Abdirazzaq Isaq Bihi was captured in the border town of Bulo Hawa, in south-western Somalia, by forces loyal to SRRC when they overran the town; he was released on 17 June.


24. Several incidents of looting were reported, in some cases associated with the aftermath of fighting.

The conscription of children under 15

25. There are no clear statistics on conscription of children. While it is claimed that child soldiers are not recruited by the militias in "Puntland" and "Somaliland", in the south, especially Mogadishu, it is alleged that many children are still serving, particularly as part of the freelance militia in Mogadishu. Most of them are reported to be boys, but a small number of females are also involved. The children are recruited to fight or to provide support services. In "Puntland", the independent expert noticed that children under 16 years of age were members of the field police force, the Daraawishta, a paramilitary police force used by Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf to regain power.

Rape and other forms of sexual violence

26. Violence against women and girls, including rape, are reportedly not uncommon in Somalia, particularly in camps for displaced persons and against women and girls of rival clans and those of minority groups. The expert was informed of allegations of rape by militiamen in the IDP camps of "Puntland", and within the framework of domestic violence in "Somaliland".


27. According to the UNCU/OCHA - Somalia Study on Minority Groups in Somalia of September 2002, "Although the population of minority groups living in Somalia has not as yet been established, estimates indicate that they constitute one third of the total Somalia population; approximately 2 million people. The minority groups include Bantu, Bravenese, Rerhamar, Bajuni, Midgaan, Eyle, Galgala, Tumal, Yibir and Gaboye. These groups continue to live in conditions of great poverty and suffer numerous forms of discrimination and exclusion [...]. These minority groups are considered inferior, without full rights, hence their low social, economic and political status. As a result of social segregation, economic deprivation and political manipulation, minority groups were systematically excluded from mainstream government positions and the few minorities who held positions had no power to speak on behalf of their communities. Furthermore, as a result of their distinct ethnic identity, some minorities, particular the Bantu and Bajuni, have suffered systematic confiscation of their lands and properties [...]." (p. 2)

28. Credible reports received by the independent expert also indicate that dominant Somali groups believe that members of these minorities are mere chattel and that their forefathers were slaves. They are only allowed to work in menial jobs such as housekeeping, latrine-digging, shoemaking, hairdressing, and metal work. Allegedly, no local authority or international agency presently employs a member of these minorities. Ethnic minorities do not occupy a geographical area of their own, but are scattered among other communities. They are not allowed to intermarry with noble clans, and the few attempted intermarriages have been forcibly broken up.

The illegal ordering of the displacement of civilians

29. Displacement is a serious concern in Somalia. The illegal ordering of the displacement of civilians constitutes a war crime. Somalis in the conflict areas, as noted above, are often either forced away from their normal place of residence or are made to flee because of the conflict. In this respect, the independent expert wishes to draw attention to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, prepared by the Representative of the Secretary-General on internally displaced persons (E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, annex). The current situation of IDPs in Somalia is examined in further depth in section IV below.

The denial of due process

30. The independent expert wishes to highlight the crime of the denial of due process, which is listed in article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions, as well as in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which considers as a war crime "The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees."

31. The legal framework throughout the country is inconsistent and weak. While in "Somaliland", "Puntland" and areas controlled by TNG the court system has been regularized to some extent, challenges include under-qualified staff, low salaries (often less than US$ 10 a month for a judge), lack of basic equipment and of training and reference materials, gender inequalities and incoherence insofar as secular, customary and Islamic laws are all applied in conflicting and overlapping areas. Consequently, this environment lends itself to significant degrees of corruption and inefficiency.

Freedom of the press

32. In late May the "Puntland" authorities reportedly withdrew the licence of the Somali Radio and Television Broadcasting Corporation (SBC), based in Bosasso, following accusations that SBC had broken the region’s press laws. It was also alleged that SBC had been targeted because of its perceived bias against the Puntland leader, Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf and its support of the interim government in Mogadishu and Jama Ali Jama, Abdullahi Yusuf’s rival.

33. In June the authorities in the self-declared republic of "Somaliland" banned the establishment of private radio stations, reportedly pending the introduction of broadcasting regulations. A statement by the Information Ministry reportedly declared that "No other voice can be heard on the air waves except Radio Hargeisa, which is the national voice", given the "potential danger" posed by independent operations.

34. At the end of August, a court in Hargeisa, "Somaliland", sentenced to four months’ imprisonment Abdirahman Isma’il Umar, the editor of an Hargeisa-based daily newspaper Wartire. He had been found guilty of "misreporting", but was subsequently granted amnesty at the request of the independent expert during his visit.

35. In early October 2002, the President of TNG, Abdiqassim Salah Hassan, declined to approve a controversial media law passed by the Transitional National Assembly. Journalists reportedly went on strike to protest against the so-called "Press Law", passed at the end of September. The law allegedly restricts the activities of the press and will make it illegal to cover information on government secrets and to criticize government officials.

Women’s rights

36. Women continue to be very underrepresented in Somali political life and to have secondary status. However, in a positive development in this regard, "Somaliland" earlier this year appointed its first woman minister.

37. The widespread practice of female genital mutilation continues to affect an estimated 90 per cent or more of the female population. There has also been a rise in the number of reports of domestic violence, notably in "Somaliland".

Children’s rights

38. As noted above, child soldiers are not an uncommon phenomenon in Somalia. While there are no verifiable statistics, child soldiers are evident among the militias of both faction leaders and authorities, notably in the south of the country.

39. The school enrolment rate for children in Somalia is 13-14 per cent. Given the widespread poverty in the country, many young people are apparently lured by the economic and other opportunities offered by the life of militiamen. Furthermore, UNICEF reports indicate that 41.9 per cent of children aged 5-14 are classified as working children, mainly in domestic labour. Incidents of juvenile criminality are also reported to have risen over the last few years.

40. With the deterioration of the traditional social networks an increasing number of children are exposed to abandonment, delinquency and institutionalization. There is reportedly a marked growth in the number of street children in Hargeisa, many of them IDPs, who are rendered especially vulnerable by the absence of clan support and identity, given the cultural context. The independent expert met with a group of orphans facing this situation during his stay in Hargeisa.

41. The long-standing Somali practice whereby parents send their disobedient children to be kept in prison until they order their release continues to be rampant. Although the late President Egal of "Somaliland" had promised to outlaw this practice, the expert received no evidence of the outlawing.

42. In September 2002, a court in Hargeisa, "Somaliland", sentenced two children, aged 16 years, to death for murdering a 16-year-old. Though the death sentence has not been carried out, the Government is asking the court to review the case. A third accused, aged 18 years, was sentenced to life imprisonment.

43. Convicted juveniles continue to be kept in jail cells with adult criminals. Authorities in both "Somaliland" and "Puntland" cite the lack of resources as an obstacle to providing separate facilities for juveniles.

Economic, social and cultural rights

44. The humanitarian situation in Somalia is among the poorest in the world. The 2002 Consolidated Appeal for Somalia estimated that 45 women die every day in labour and one in four children do not reach the age of five. Outbreaks of cholera occur each year, and Kala Azar and Rift Valley fevers are allegedly prevalent. There is limited access to quality public health-care services, potable water or sanitation.

45. According to an FAO report of May 2002, despite the good harvest of the cereal crop, up to 500,000 people were threatened by severe food shortages. Important factors in this regard were a poor 2001 main season harvest, successive droughts, insecurity and reduced foreign exchange earnings precipitated by the livestock ban imposed by some Gulf States on Somalia. Food prices had reportedly risen in Mogadishu, during June and July, owing to insecurity. Clan fighting in central and southern Somalia had disrupted the movement of people and commodities between Baidoa, the main food-producing area, Gedo in the south-west and the capital.

46. The closure of the banking company Barakaat, which handled most of the remittances into Somalia, has caused a great deal of hardship to hundreds of families that depend on money flows from abroad. United States regulators ordered the closure of Barakaat, on suspicion that the company had links to Al-Qaeda. The United Nations had reportedly intervened to try to create better understanding between some Governments and remittance companies operating in Somalia. It is hoped that these efforts will lead towards more formal, transparent and structured remittance companies that would contribute to the alleviation of the suffering of families dependent on remittances.

47. The expert was pleased to learn about the continued United Nations efforts towards the lifting of the ban on Somali livestock. While UNDP and FAO had contributed to the reopening of the market for meat from some parts of Somalia in Yemen and Oman, by acting as "guarantors" for its safety, long-term measures were being pursued for establishing a certification system through a Swiss-based company. However, these two countries represent only 3 per cent of the market, and further attempts would be needed to engage the Saudi Arabian Government regarding its specific demands for the reintroduction of Somali meat products into the Saudi market. The expert also met with representatives of the Saudi Government, who indicated that it was seriously reviewing the matter.

48. Also of heightened concern during the year was the increasingly restricted humanitarian access to vulnerable communities caught up in the conflict. In particular, escalating crime, including the abductions noted above, had made working conditions difficult, if not impossible, and had led to the temporary suspension of activity in mid-May. Fighting in the south-western town of Baidoa and in "Puntland" had forced the United Nations to temporarily evacuate its staff, while in the drought-stricken region of Gedo the laying of landmines associated with clan fighting had also hindered access.

49. The expert is concerned about the conditions of the abuse and illegal use of the waters and shores of Somalia through overfishing and waste dumping. In the absence of a central Government to guard and protect these shores, the situation has been deteriorating over the last 10 years. The effects on the livelihood of the local fishermen and on the environment are considerable, and serious international attention needs to be paid in this regard.


50. The expert continued to be encouraged by the evidently active and keen members of civil society in Somalia. He was particularly pleased by the progress made in capacity-building, notably through a workshop held in Hargeisa in August for NGOs working on human rights monitoring.

51. Human rights defenders were again a key source of information during the expert’s visit. He noted, however, that human rights defenders faced significant difficulties in the Somali context. These challenges include excessive controls by the authorities, restricted capacity, inadequate funding and lack of exposure to the outside world. These factors were especially impressed upon the expert during his visit to "Puntland" where, inter alia, regulations for registration were strongly enforced. The expert recommends enhanced support of human rights defenders by the authorities as well as by donors and United Nations agencies.

52. The expert wishes to express his regret at the tragic murder of Ms. Starlin Arush, a Somali human rights defender, who was reportedly killed by armed robbers in Kenya in November as she was about to attend the peace talks.


53. The expert met with Mr. Henryson, Head of Programme at the UNHCR office in Nairobi, who stated that children’s and women’s rights were key components of his organization’s policy. He outlined the situation with respect to the rate of repatriation from the neighbouring countries of Yemen, Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia, and noted that camps in the latter two were being closed given the rates of repatriation of 4,500 and 5,000 per month, respectively. He stated that there was no forcible repatriation. Reintegration programmes were only being undertaken in "Somaliland" at the time, which included projects for school and even police station construction, while other United Nations agencies would assume responsibility for the maintenance of services. Mr. Henryson also noted that there were no specific programmes for persons classified by the administration as "refugees" given that "Somaliland" was not recognized as an independent State, but that it was hoped that they would be catered for to some degree through community-oriented refugee projects.

54. According to the UNCU/UN-OCHA Somalia 2002 Internally Displaced Persons Combined Report on Somalia, "an estimated 350,000 of the country’s 7 million inhabitants are internally displaced persons (IDPs) who, as a result of protracted conflict and insecurity, have experienced impoverishment, often combined with drought, which induces mass population displacement. Additionally, Somali IDPs have lost most of their assets and sources of livelihood, including livestock and land, and have little access to stable employment [...]. Notably, IDPs constitute nearly half of the estimated 750,000 Somalis who live in a state of chronic humanitarian need." Furthermore, the harsh living conditions of many returnees in the north-west is generally similar to those of IDPs. Poor access to basic services and employment opportunities affect returnees and IDPs alike in the main resettlement areas. However, studies suggest that where IDPs and returnees are living in the same urban centres such as Hargeisa, it is the IDPs and minorities who are more vulnerable, and consistently fall behind all the other communities in terms of poverty indicators and opportunities.

55. Links were also made to the minority status of many IDPs, who were reported to be driven from their lands and disproportionately victimized by dominant groups following the outbreak of civil war in 1991. It is further noted that refugees benefit from significantly more protection than IDPs insofar as refugees fall under the authority of UNHCR, and some authorities, such as in "Somaliland", recognize the rights of returnees. Other international instruments of protection are rendered ineffective, given the predominance of faction leaders and weak administrations.

56. The expert visited the Boqolka Bush camp for IDPs on 30 August. The conditions were extremely poor, perhaps even to a degree unfit for human habitation, with inadequate or no access to water and sanitation facilities, shelter, education or protection from criminal activity. IDPs lived in dwellings of 2 metres by 2 metres for which rents were charged; toilets built by UNICEF were locked by the landowner, reportedly because of the inability of tenants to pay user fees. Allegations of sexual assault by local militiamen were also reported to the expert. The situation of IDPs was described by some persons as rooted in the question of land rights, insofar as there is little public land available for redistribution to the homeless by the State. It is reported that on 3 September, shortly following the expert’s visit, a fire of unknown origin swept through the camp destroying the personal belongings and household items of about 400 families.


A. Visit to Bosasso

57. The independent expert visited Bosasso, "Puntland", from 29 to 31 August 2002. "Puntland", located in the north-east of Somalia, and previously noted for its relative peace, has been the scene of significant violence during a period of constitutional crisis. Controversy over "Puntland’s" leadership had been increasingly vocal since June 2001 when Mr. Abdullahi Yusuf, whose term ended on that date, claimed that Parliament had extended his mandate. A number of "Puntland’s" traditional elders, meeting in July 2001, rejected his claim to an extended mandate and named Yusuf Haji Nur, "Puntland’s" former chief justice, as "acting president" until the election of a new administration. The elders then convened a general congress in August and on 14 November 2001 elected Jama Ali Jama for a three-year term. As a result, a number of intermittent battles for leadership over the course of the following months ensued. While there were significant differences in reports as to the scale and impact of the conflict, the most consistent and credible allegations would suggest that about 50 people were killed, including both combatants and civilians, and an additional 150 wounded. At the time of the independent expert’s visit, the town was calm but tense.

58. The expert met with the president of "Puntland", Mr. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, on three occasions, once on each day of the mission. During the first meeting the president declared that he would give the mission free access to any area of "Puntland". A Committee of Ministers was formed to facilitate the mission.

59. In his first visit with the president, the expert requested the release of persons detained without charge or for political reasons. This was initially denied, but on a second visit the president complied with a request for the team to meet privately with detainees at the police station. The expert garnered the names of political and other detainees during his stay. On the morning of 31 August five men identified by the expert were taken from their place of detention in the police station and officially freed by the president in the presence of the mission. Among those freed were human rights activists.

60. The mission visited the ongoing police training sessions at Ga’ayte Hall in Bosasso. The curriculum incorporated human rights components, and students included a small number of women. One class was devoted to basic literacy to allow for participation by less educated candidates.

61. The expert met with chiefs of United Nations agencies in Bosasso. Some expressed their frustration at delays in the implementation of programming due to violence and heightened tensions in the region, which had prompted the evacuation of international staff on three occasions. Projects affected included those entrusted with the repatriation of refugees, food distribution and education. Health programmes such as immunization continued unaffected, however.

62. The expert also met with international NGOs working in "Puntland". He was informed of the police raid on 23 August on the offices of an organization called Ocean Training and Promotion (OTP), whose director was reportedly a human rights activist, during which six persons were arrested. All were subsequently released pending further investigation. The authorities alleged that the arrests were prompted by the fact that OTP was not properly registered.

63. A meeting was convened between the expert and the Committee established to facilitate the mission. They discussed the allegations of human rights violations which had been shared with the expert, with a view to addressing areas of concern. The authorities claimed that they did not use arbitrary detention, and that a major radio station had been closed down on account of its clan affiliations. With respect to the arrest of OTP members, this was justified by the Committee on the grounds that the organization was not legally registered, and also because they allegedly operated as part of a political and clandestine network. The Committee further noted that three of the detainees in the prison station had been charged with violating the security of the State.

64. In Bosasso the expert met with local NGOs. Some noted that the requirements for registration had been inconsistent, and changed under different administrations, posing some hindrance to their functioning. They shared with the mission their knowledge of human rights conditions in Bosasso.

65. The expert visited the Bosasso Hospital, escorted by the Committee assigned to the mission. The team was shown patients with minor cases, and was told that more seriously wounded persons and prisoners of war were sent to Dubai. The team also visited the police station where it was escorted to the room where the prisoners were being held. The mission was denied its repeated request for a private meeting with the prisoners, for which reason it refused to proceed with the scheduled visit to the Bosasso central prison. Credible human rights sources in Bosasso told the independent expert that the Committee members deliberately omitted taking him to the hospital section where the most seriously wounded were kept. The same sources also alleged that those seriously wounded from among the members of Abdullahi Yusuf’s faction were flown to Dubai, while those belonging to the opposition were kept in local hospitals which lack basic medical facilities. These reports could not be confirmed.

66. He also spoke with members of the "Puntland Peace Mission", a group created to mediate between the two warring sides and to mobilize civil society. Their efforts in this regard included a workshop in Nairobi on 14 March, sponsored by a Swedish NGO, Diakonia, which sought to address the crisis, as well as providing a forum for civil society from 22 to 24 March to promote a culture of peace. While admitting failure in averting further military confrontation, the group members expressed their resolve to continue to work with elders and civil society to advocate peaceful solutions to issues. The group acts on a voluntary basis and is currently composed of 11 members.

67. During the expert’s mission, an allegation was brought to his attention concerning the arrest and deportation of two men, a Palestinian and a Syrian, by the "Puntland" authorities. Information from credible sources seemed to confirm this allegation, but no clear and verifiable causes could be identified for this action. When approached on the issue, the authorities did not provide further information. The two men were allegedly handed over by "Puntland’s" authorities to foreign nationals and were flown to Ethiopia. The expert met with the son of one of the men, who told him that the family had left Bosasso and that they had had no further information on his father. In Nairobi, the independent expert raised the issue with a United States representative, who promised to look into the matter insofar as it was alleged that the American Government was somehow involved. Two weeks after the expert’s departure, he was contacted by one of the two men, who was then back in Bosasso and sought the help of the expert in obtaining a passport since his had been lost in Ethiopia. He claimed that he had been taken to Ethiopia and questioned by Ethiopian and American intelligence and released after they found nothing on him. He was able to receive a new passport from an embassy in the United Arab Emirates and left the country. The other man had reportedly been released a few days earlier.

B. Visit to "Somaliland"

68. The visit to Hargeisa in "Somaliland" took place in two stages, the first on 26 August, when the mission was en route to Bosasso, and the second on the way back, from 31 August to 2 September.

69. "Somaliland" in the north-west, had maintained calm and relative peace over the past year. This was especially notable during the period following the death of former President Egal in early May 2002, when two opposing ideas on the way forward were being proposed. The Gurti members reportedly believed that "Somaliland" was a constitutional democracy with a multiparty system, and should therefore move ahead with multiparty elections, while the opposition elders contended that "Somaliland" was not ready for elections, and therefore a national conference bringing together all the clans should be convened to decide the way forward. In June, the acting president, Dahir Riyale Kahin, initiated dialogue between the two camps of sultans - senior and traditional elders - to reconcile differences between the pro-administration elders and their opposition counterparts. Local elections were scheduled for 15 December 2002 and the presidential elections for February 2003. This has provided an environment for expanded commerce, construction and political development. Several training centres and technical vocational schools were also evident.

70. On 26 August the mission met with the Minister for Family Development and Social Affairs. Ms. Edna Adan is the first female minister appointed by the "Somaliland" administration, and is responsible for advocacy on social development and gender issues. She expressed the opinion that "Somaliland’s" key social problems arise from poverty, unemployment, the disproportionately low opportunities available to women and widespread use of quat, a mild narcotic. She also pointed out that studies undertaken by GTZ, a German NGO, and by a UNDP psychosocial programme had suggested that 40 per cent and 27 per cent, respectively, of men in "Somaliland" suffered from one form or another of mental disorders. The minister intimated that this situation could be linked to allegations of increased cases of domestic violence. She stated that the issue of female genital mutilation was a long-standing serious concern on which she continued to advocate strongly, notably through raising awareness within the community.

71. The expert also met with four teenage orphans at their request. The young men were seeking his advice and assistance on how they could be provided for on their imminent discharge from the orphanage, since they had no clan or other affiliations to give them support. They said that their orphanage housed between 300 and 400 orphans, of whom roughly 20 were seeking training to enable them to find jobs after leaving. Such opportunities apparently did not exist for them, however, at present. The mission stated that it would raise the issue with UNICEF, "Somaliland" authorities and the larger international community regarding programmes which could cater for such cases.

72. The mission met with a female representative of a "Puntland" NGO, who furnished information on the events in "Puntland" surrounding the reclaiming of the presidency by Abdulahi Yusuf. She made reference to the alleged killing of a sultan at the hands of Abdulahi Yusuf’s forces, claiming also that her office had been raided on three occasions. These reports could not be confirmed.

73. On 31 August the expert met with local human rights NGOs. Among the issues raised was the need to promote human rights awareness and to build capacity for human rights monitoring by NGOs. They also stressed the need to establish NGO networks. With respect to prisons, it was reported that children and adults were still being kept in the same cells and that no vocational training was being provided. It was especially noted that IDPs were viewed as criminals and a burden to society, which created tensions in the community and significant discrimination against them. The group also reported on the arrest and imprisonment of Abdirahman Isma’il Umar, editor of the Hargeisa-based daily newspaper Wartire, convicted of "misreporting".

74. The expert also learnt, through first-hand and second-hand reports, of serious cases of domestic violence, in which the lives of women were put in jeopardy or lost at the hands of their husbands. At the time of the visit there were no shelters in which to accommodate abused women in safety, but efforts were being proposed by local women’s NGOs for the establishment of safe homes and advocacy on the issue with the authorities. The expert additionally proposed to some representatives of those NGOs the creation of women lawyers’ and human rights lawyers’ associations.

75. The mission met with the Hargeisa Police Commander, who said that there were policewomen in all police stations, totalling 330 in all the districts and regions of "Somaliland", largely older women retained from the previous Siad Barre regime. Thirty women were currently being recruited from high schools to be sent to Mandera police training. He asserted that the police force did not use torture. With regard to allegations of domestic violence, he said that according to Somali tradition the family may take over such cases from the police in order to mediate between the two sides, so that the police may not assume responsibility. Cases may also be referred to customary courts for action. There was no law forcing women to go back to abusive husbands. The expert recommended the setting up of a special unit to address domestic violence and asked that the police be more objective in processing charges.

76. The expert met with the Minister for Foreign Affairs, who expressed his frustration with United Nations activities in "Somaliland", asserting that they had not delivered despite the provision of a significant amount of funding. He said that, with the exception of UNICEF and WHO, there was insufficient consultation between United Nations bodies and the administration.

77. The expert also met with the Minister of the Interior, who expressed disappointment with the international community, and suggested that the best assistance that could be rendered by the international community would be the provision of technical advisory teams on a short- term basis, with the administration undertaking reform on its own thereafter. He also noted that local "Somaliland" elections, scheduled for 27 October, would be followed by parliamentary elections.

78. The mission team met with the acting president of "Somaliland", Mr. Dahir Riyale Kahin, who took office following the death of President Egal in May. The expert requested amnesty for the editor imprisoned for "misreporting". The president said that he would give the matter some consideration. With respect to the question of efforts on the livestock ban, the president noted that "Somaliland" was working with UNDP on securing the assistance of the Swiss-based company SGS for certification of meat and livestock originating in Somalia. The expert was pleased to learn that soon after his meeting with the president the editor was released in response to the expert’s request, having served only three days of his one-month prison sentence.

79. During the expert’s visit, a meeting was held with United Nations agencies operating in "Somaliland". On the question of IDPs, the representative of UNICEF asserted that the children of IDPs were included in the vaccination programme for the region but that they did not take adequate advantage of this service. They reported that while some schools were provided, the fees were largely prohibitive. Attempts to address the problems of IDPs entailed several meetings and consultations with segments of the local community, but in the absence of follow-up action and programming, the communities were growing apathetic and frustrated, as were some of the agencies. Inaction on the part of the international community was attributed to inflexible organizational mandates, lack of financing and inadequate coordination with colleagues in Nairobi. It was felt that increased coordination among OCHA, UNICEF and UNDP could be especially useful in addressing the conditions of IDPs.

80. The independent expert met with representatives of Horn Watch, a local human rights NGO, who furnished information on the human rights situation in the region and reported on its recent workshop, held from 21 to 25 August through the sponsorship of the United States Government, with participants drawn from all regions of Somalia. It had a view to fostering human rights monitoring, reporting and coordination nationwide. Of this group seven participants were elected to form a technical committee for networking and information sharing. The expert further encouraged the representatives to consider the establishment of legal aid services.

81. The expert also met with other persons seeking to provide information on the situation in "Puntland", including unverified reports of battles which left up to 400 persons wounded, the existence of mass graves and counter-terrorism activities on the part of authorities.


82. OHCHR first technical cooperation project in Somalia was launched in October 1999, on the recommendation of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Somalia, as expressed in her 1998 report to the Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/1998/96). Its objectives included support to local administrations, human rights defenders, NGOs and women’s groups, within the framework of the work carried out by the other United Nations agencies operating in Somalia; monitoring human rights violations; and integrating human rights components into the work of resident United Nations agencies.

83. In April 2001 OHCHR, in response to a proposal from UNDP, undertook a new project to integrate human rights in the work of United Nations agencies in Somalia, particularly UNDP activities relating to good governance and the rule of law. A senior human rights adviser from OHCHR was therefore seconded to UNDP, responsible for mainstreaming human rights in the work of the United Nations agencies in Somalia and providing technical advice on the implementation of the UNDP Somali Civil Protection Programme (SCPP). He also provided support to the independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia. The project was extended to 31 December 2002, pending the outcome of an evaluation mission scheduled for late October 2002.

84. The expert has been supportive of the OHCHR/UNDP project, and appealed to the Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-eighth session in April 2002 for the continuation of OHCHR technical cooperation in the field. He has reiterated his position in communications with partners in the field and with OHCHR Headquarters in Geneva.

85. In Nairobi the expert met with the UNDP Resident Representative and Deputy Resident Representative, who outlined the Organizations’s work, notably on human rights issues. They stressed the difficulties presented by mounting insecurity in the field, which significantly restricted their operational environment, and sought support for alleviating the situation. In "Somaliland", increasing attention was being paid to the reintegration of refugees and IDPs. With respect to human rights specifically, particular support was being provided to investigating past atrocities, financing human rights institutions and implementing SCPP. In this last respect, there had been serious obstacles which delayed the programme initiation until late in the year, and consideration was being given to a phased approach in future activities. However, both the Resident Representative and the UNDP Country Director stressed the need for an independent and strengthened OHCHR field presence in Somalia.

86. The expert also met with representatives of Diakonia, a Swedish NGO which implements SCPP in "Puntland". They relayed their progress on police and paralegal training and training of custodial court workers, as well as workshops held in partnership with Somali Women Concern. Schools were being built or reconstructed. Diakonia was also undertaking the mapping of community-based organizations in the region. The expert was also informed that, with the construction of roughly 200 homes, the first phase of the Organization’s housing project had been completed. The expert continues to be impressed with the approach being adopted by Diakonia and to find further reason for endorsement in the positive results for the "Puntland" community.

87. In his meetings with donors in Nairobi, the expert advocated continued support for technical cooperation activities in the area of human rights and noted the value of civil society members as partners in the protection and promotion and human rights. In this regard, some donors expressed the view that current difficulties with implementation should be addressed and new modalities possibly considered. The mission also met with the Egyptian and Italian ambassadors, as well as with representatives of the embassies of the United States, Sweden and Saudi Arabia and of the European Union.

88 At a meeting of heads of United Nations agencies on the occasion of the expert’s visit, human rights-related issues were highlighted in the programming of the various agencies. With respect to refugees, land rights were identified as a key question affecting their condition, as was the severe discrimination which they reportedly faced, concerns which were being addressed as part of the monitoring system encompassing social and economic rights. The approach of UNCU was one of addressing vulnerable communities, and as such a workshop was held to consider, inter alia, protection issues for IDPs and minorities. Children’s rights were also an area of concern and a child protection officer was due to be deployed by UNICEF. (It was hoped that the issue of the individual liability of faction leaders for prosecution outside Somalia could be explored within the framework of human rights mechanisms.)

89 The expert met with a representative of Norwegian People’s Aid, which served as the head of the International NGO Consortium. Among the key human rights issues raised were allegations of corruption and discrimination against minority groups, and the availability of land for IDPs. Concern was also expressed that the peace dividend approach applied by international organizations, by which regions achieving a minimum of stability were permitted to host international staff and projects, did not take adequately into consideration the manner in which that measure of stability was achieved. The forthcoming tenth anniversary of the UNISOM deployment was being proposed as an opportunity for promoting a new, more positive, image of Somalia, based on enhanced community accountability.

90. The mission team met with a representative of the War-torn Societies Project, a quasi-NGO with affiliates throughout Somalia addressing questions of conflict and reconciliation. In his estimation, the fluid political environment reportedly facilitated increased criminal activity and networks as well as stronger militia groups, resulting in larger numbers of kidnapping, as well as trafficking in drugs, arms and persons. In the south, the rule of law was largely based on customary law, with accepted intervention by clan elders, while in "Somaliland" secular law was applied with Shariah being restricted to family cases. In "Puntland" there was no Council of Elders, a fact that led to a stronger role for the Muslim fundamentalist groups al-Ittihad. He expressed the view that in addressing alleged past human rights atrocities, the approach taken should depend largely on the distinction Somalis make as to whether the deaths were caused by human rights abuses or the inevitable consequence of war, and whether UNISOM members are involved in the prosecution process. In the present circumstances, the most effective measure to address human rights violations, however, may lie in advocating individual accountability for crimes, such as smart sanctions or lawsuits brought against violators in other countries’ courts.


91. Several key human rights issues were brought to the fore during the expert’s mission. Among those were the plight of internally displaced persons, law enforcement and prison conditions, protection of women’s rights, economic, social and cultural rights and the ongoing need to address alleged past human rights atrocities. The expert was struck by the growing political and clan-based instability in several regions and the attendant deterioration of security conditions, with significant negative consequences for the protection of human rights. Nevertheless, he was heartened by the apparent progress towards greater political maturity in the north-west region of "Somaliland".

92. With respect to illegal fishing, the expert calls on the international community to set up an international agency entrusted with the task of protecting the fisheries and shores of Somalia. He reiterates the need for a similar model in the field of civil aviation.

93. The expert is particularly concerned about the status and conditions of internally displaced persons. While initial steps are being taken to examine the situation in preparation for more broad-based intervention by the international community, it is important that the problem also be addressed within a human rights framework, touching on, inter alia, consideration of land rights, the right to adequate housing and the right to education. It would also appear beneficial for relevant United Nations agencies to be flexible and concrete in their programming.

94. The expert again applauds the vital role being assumed by civil society and the media in human rights monitoring and other activities supportive of the promotion and protection of human rights. He is encouraged by efforts undertaken over the past year by the donor community to fund capacity-building exercises for human rights NGOs and calls upon donors for strengthened assistance of this nature. The expert further appeals to local authorities to refrain from legislative and other measures geared towards the restriction of press and media freedoms. He stresses that such liberties are the foundations of accountability and participation, key human rights principles on which effective States are built.

95. With respect to the presence of OHCHR in Somalia, the independent expert makes the following recommendations:

  • A sustained and strengthened field should exist in Somalia beyond 2002;

  • Greater independence of the OHCHR presence should be granted while maintaining close collaboration with other agencies working in the area of human rights; and

  • Strengthened technical cooperation activities should also include early integration of human rights in pre-peace programmes in order to prepare the ground for comprehensive human rights interventions once peace is achieved.


List of persons consulted

Nairobi Mr. Gary Quince, Head of Delegation, and Mr. Walid Musa,
Officer in Charge, European Union delegation
Ms. Eva Johansson, Embassy of Sweden
Ambassador Lauri Kangas, Embassy of Finland
Mr. Sami J. Hindi, deputy Head of Mission, Embassy of Saudi Arabia
Dr. Salah A. Halimah, Special Envoy of Egypt for Somalia
Mr. Glen Warren, Embassy of the United States of America
Ambassador Carlo Ungaro, Special Envoy of Italy for Somalia
Mr. Max Gaylard, UNDP Resident Representative
Dr. Babafemi Badejo, United Nations Political Office for Somalia
Mr. Roland Henryson, Head of Programme, UNHCR
Mr. Gary Jones, Norwegian Peoples’ Aid
Mr. Jan-Owe Wilback
Mr. Abdinur Yusuf Ahmed Zainoor
Mr. Mohammed Abshir Waldo, Diakonia (Swedish NGO)
Mr. Matt Bryden, War-Torn Societies Project
Hargeisa, "Somaliland", Somalia Mr. Dahir Riyale Kahin, president of "Somaliland"
Minister for Family Development
Minister for Foreign Affairs
Minister of the Interior
Commander and Vice Commander of the police
Representatives of local NGOs
Representatives of United Nations and international non-governmental
Bosasso, "Puntland",
Mr. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, president of "Puntland"
"Puntland" authorities
Bosasso Police Commander
Representatives of United Nations agencies
Representatives of international NGOs
Representatives of local NGOs