Somalia + 1 more

2022 AVSI Cross-border Household Multisector Survey - Dadaab, Afmadow, Kismayo & Jamame


Date: 01.05.2022 - 04.09.2022

Frequency: Other

Key findings

Migration patterns (table 1): high mobility. Among the communities surveyed, live a very significant share (from ¼ to ¾ of HHs) of relocated people (IDPs or Returnees, who were forced to move due to insecurity, need to find a living, and climate-forced migration). Very surprisingly, the communities with the highest share of IDPs /Returnees are those located in Kismayo and Jamaame districts. Dhobley, on the other hand, has the highest share of recently relocated IDPs /Returnees. On the contrary, the population is more “stably settled” in Dadaab refugee camps and surrounding communities.

Occupation patterns (Table 2): livelihood instability. Coherent with the migration patterns described above, a large share of the families living in Dadaab and surrounding areas are engaged in “stable occupations” such as crop or animal farming. On the contrary, in Dhobley a large share of the population is engaged in unstable occupations such as non-agriculture casual labor or the sale of firewood/charcoal. In Kismayo too most people are engaged in short-term jobs, with retail being an important source of such occupations. In Kismayo rural and Jamaame, agriculture provides most jobs, with a large share of casual laborers (arguably landless non-native IDPs/Returnees) who have seasonal jobs.

Food security (Table 3 and 4): alarming conditions leading to chronic malnutrition. Except for the people in the Dadaab refugee camp, the food security conditions of all the other communities across the Kenya and Somalia border are quite alarming. While access to food is not the most distressing problem, the diet variety is very poor for at least 4 out of 10 families (“poor” FCS), a condition leading to infant chronic malnutrition, and causing irreversible damage to the youngest.


The questionnaire was developed based on the Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring System (FSNMS) survey conducted by WFP/FAO (the basis of the IPC, a semestral review conducted in 50+ countries in 3 continents) and the UNICEF MICS survey (multiple indicator cluster survey) (a survey conducted for more than 40 years in 118 countries). The random identification of households surveyed followed the two-stage cluster sampling: 1st stage - selection of villages (based on probability proportional to population size (PPS) and stratification according to the administrative area); 2nd stage - selection of households (based on “improved random-walk” method).


This report provides a holistic picture of a people somehow connected as a result of the human displacement that occurred in and continues to affect Somalia. In particular, it reports the conditions of families based on a multi-sector household survey conducted along a route of climate-forced migration and returns crossing on the Somali-Kenyan border. Three (3) communities were analyzed through an in-depth contextual analysis:

  • Dadaab Refugees camp and Dadaab host community (located in Kenya, close to the Somali border, hosting mostly Somali nationals)
  • Dhobley Town and the closest villages (located in Somalia, close to the Kenyan border, where many people previously located in Dadaab relocated)
  • Kismayo, Jamaame, and surrounding areas (on the outskirt of the city and along the estuary of the Juba river, is an area where many IDPs live along with returnees from Dadaab)

Location(s) Somalia

Kenya > Garissa > Dadaab