As of mid-June, more than 30,000 refugees, 77 per cent of whom were children and women, had crossed into Rwanda fearing violence due to political instability in Burundi. With the continued volatility related to forthcoming elections in Burundi, it is estimated that 100,000 refugees may enter the country by September 2015. Refugee children are arriving in poor health, some severely malnourished and highly vulnerable to disease. There are also heightened protection concerns as children are at a greater risk of exploitation, particularly the more than 1,100 children who have arrived in Rwanda separated from their families or unaccompanied. Immediate support is required for refugees arriving in the reception centres and refugee camps, including access to shelter, food, safe water, sanitation and hygiene, and essential health services in order to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks. The large number of severely malnourished children (SAM) urgently require treatment. Children also require protection services and immediate psychosocial support, as well as access to educational and recreational activities.