Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP): Mid-Year Review of the Humanitarian Appeal 2005 for Chechnya (North Caucasus - Russian Federation)

Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)
The CAP is much more than an appeal for money. It is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:

a) strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
b) resource mobilisation (leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal);
c) coordinated programme implementation;
d) joint monitoring and evaluation;
e) revision, if necessary; and
f) reporting on results.

The CHAP is a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or region and includes the following elements:

a) A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
b) An assessment of needs;
c) best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
d) Stakeholder analysis, i.e. who does what and where;
e) A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
f) Prioritised response plans; and
g) A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.

The CHAP is the foundation for developing a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break or natural disasters occur, a Flash Appeal. The CHAP can also serve as a reference for organisations deciding not to appeal for funds through a common framework. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Country Team. This team mirrors the IASC structure at headquarters and includes UN agencies, and standing invitees, i.e. the International Organization for Migration, the Red Cross Movement, and NGOs that belong to ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR. Non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can be included, and other key stakeholders in humanitarian action, in particular host governments and donors, should be consulted.

The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal document. The document is launched globally each November to enhance advocacy and resource mobilisation. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors in June of each year.

Donors provide resources to appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals. The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of donor contributions and can be found on

In sum, the CAP is about how the aid community collaborates to provide civilians in need the best protection and assistance available, on time.


The security situation in Chechnya continues to cause humanitarian needs and socio-economic uncertainty both inside Chechnya and in the neighbouring republics. Low-level confrontations between state security forces and non-state combatants persist, as do other forms of armed violence. Disappearances of civilians, as well as reported torture and other human rights abuses also continue with disturbing frequency. The infrastructure in Chechnya is largely destroyed and remains incapable of providing its citizens with all essential social services and conditions for normal life. The unemployment rate is estimated at 80%. Conditions in the neighbouring republics are not as stark, but they are clearly still adversely affected by the instability in Chechnya. A large number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) remain outside Chechnya, especially in Ingushetia, although the vast majority of former IDPs have returned to Chechnya, if not to their homes. Some of those remaining in Ingushetia express a desire to integrate locally.

The level of need for humanitarian assistance and protection is unchanged since the release of the 2005 Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Chechnya (North Caucasus-Russian Federation). Recovery is a slow process, and the humanitarian partners in the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) remain committed to meeting assistance and protection needs in the medium-term. It is possible that some increase in the CAP budget will be needed in the second half of 2005, should humanitarian agencies gain greater access to vulnerable people who were previously unreachable in Chechnya.

The hardship experienced by the 850,000 people in Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan estimated to be directly affected by the conflict is compounded by the difficult socio-economic and security conditions across the region. While Ingushetia has experienced a decrease in the number of IDPs, humanitarian aid remains vital for those IDPs remaining and the communities that host them. This is compounded by unemployment of over 50% and other socio-economic problems. In Dagestan, there are similar socio-economic factors and the security situation by some accounts may be deteriorating. Overall, humanitarian relief, protection, and recovery projects in the 2005 Appeal target well over one million citizens in four republics.

Violence and insecurity not only cause humanitarian needs, but also create the greatest obstacle to humanitarian action, particularly in Chechnya. Access under current conditions is difficult and expensive for humanitarian agencies, especially the United Nations. Nonetheless, working together, agencies are able to provide good coverage on the ground. The work done by Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) are essential in this regard, and any CAP success is dependent upon these partnerships.

The humanitarian programme proposed in the 2005 Consolidated Appeal (CA) document has received fairly strong support from donors. As of 10 June, participating agencies and donors report 50% funding for the 2005 Appeal, even considering the US$ 8.45 million budget increase from project revisions in this Mid-Year Review (MYR). While this is a positive signal of support, agencies are still in need of US$ 33.7 million to fully realise the 2005 humanitarian programme. Preliminarily, the same level of humanitarian assistance is foreseen in 2006.

This MYR is unique in that it does not foreshadow a 2006 Consolidated Appeal. At the request of the Government of the Russian Federation, humanitarian partners supporting the CAP will continue with assistance and protection under a broader framework of ‘transition programming’. A Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) analysing the humanitarian situation, setting shared programme goals, and indicating the priorities for action will be prepared in close coordination with the Government and development partners. To the extent possible, humanitarian and development agencies will build a common programme with the ultimate goal of supporting the full recovery and future prosperity of conflict-affected communities of the North Caucasus. It is much too early to speak of the phasing out of humanitarian aid in the North Caucasus, but the importance of capacity-building and recovery projects within the CAP, and of development activity outside of it, has been greatly emphasised in the 2005 CAP dialogue.


The apparently sustained return of IDPs in 2004 and 2005 may indicate a perceived, if slight, improvement in the security environment and other living conditions in Grozny. IDPs have continued to return to Chechnya in 2005, although at significantly lower rates than in 2003 and 2004. Estimated returns totalled some 1,000 persons between January and May 2005. In comparison, 19,666 were reported to have returned in 2003 and 19,019 in 2004. Currently, over 31,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are still registered in Ingushetia. Many returnees have received Government compensation for destroyed housing and lost property upon return to Chechnya, although they often remain displaced within the Republic.

A cause for concern in the first half of 2005 has been the continued spread of violence to other republics of the North Caucasus. Instability in Dagestan appears to have increased, as evidenced by reported attacks targeting law enforcement officers and armed confrontations between these agencies and non-state combatants. In Kabardino-Balkaria, skirmishes have occurred with increased frequency. North-Ossetia Alania and Ingushetia have seen a series of popular demonstrations protesting against Government policies and effectiveness, with those in North Ossetia being of a reasonably large-scale. While the situation appears to be generally under control, each incident raises cause for concern in the humanitarian community.

The overall climate of insecurity in Chechnya, and its overflow into the neighbouring republics, continues to make protection of civilians a first priority. No major destabilising events have occurred since last September’s tragic school hostage-taking in Beslan, but violent confrontations between federal forces and non-state combatants take place regularly in populated areas. The Government has made efforts to curb human rights abuses, but civilians in Chechnya continue to face violations such as disappearances, extra judicial killings and torture. In March 2005, a workshop on protection of civilians brought authorities together with local and international aid workers to discuss the challenges. The workshop resulted in a consensus that much remains to be done to re-establish the rule of law.

The humanitarian community recognises that the primary responsibility for the welfare of people in need in the North Caucasus, including security, rests with the Russian Government. The Federal Government has undertaken measures to stabilise the region and rebuild its largely destroyed infrastructure. The programme for compensation for destroyed housing and lost property has continued and, despite accusations of impropriety and mismanagement, made progress in compensating some 39,000 individuals for their losses. The Government has been forthcoming about the areas of humanitarian need remaining, and has also sought to boost the scale of reconstruction and development projects aimed at restoring the Republic’s economy.

Even with the increased efforts of the Government, the international community has a role to play in assisting and protecting the most vulnerable, and its humanitarian programmes are designed to contribute to recovery and, ultimately, sustainable development. A multi-year transition strategy that integrates relief with recovery programming is emerging from the open dialogue of all partners in humanitarian action and development/reconstruction. This is an extremely important development in 2005, as only infrastructure reconstruction, economic revitalisation, and improvement of the rule of law will eventually reduce the large need for humanitarian aid. In mid-2005, however, needs assessments and communications with the Chechen Government clearly justify the continuation of humanitarian assistance and protection on the current scale. This is expected to continue at least through 2006 as well, and the humanitarian partners of the CAP remain committed.

Ensuring the safety of humanitarian workers in the North Caucasus remains a major operational concern. Safety with adequate humanitarian access to the vulnerable is needed for all humanitarian assistance and community recovery projects to succeed. For the United Nations, Chechnya is still under evacuation status, with the neighbouring republics also being difficult operating arenas. NGOs and other partners too find security very restrictive. The United Nations agencies are optimistic that the situation will be more flexible in Chechnya during 2005.


1. Executive Summary
2. Changes in the Context and Humanitarian Consequenes

3. Review of the Common Humanitarian Action Plan

3.1 Summary

  • 3.1.A. Impact of Funding Levels on CHAP Implementation

3.2 Scenarios

3.3 Strategic priorities

3.4 Response plans

  • 3.4.A. Protection/Human Rights/Rule of Law
  • 3.4.B. Food
  • 3.4.C. Family Shelter and Non-Food Items
  • 3.4.D. Health (includes reproductive health, nutrition, psycho-social support)
  • 3.4.E. Water and Sanitation
  • 3.4.F. Education
  • 3.4.G. Mine Action (MA)
  • 3.4.H. Economic Recovery and Infrastructure
  • 3.4.I. Coordination and Support Services
  • 3.4.J. Security (includes staff safety and MOSS compliance)

4. Money and Projects
5. Conclusion

Annex I. Project Summaries
Annex II. Summary of Requirements and Contributions by Appealing Organisation and By Sector
Annex III. Acronyms and Abbreviations

Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.

Full Original Mid-Term Review [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]

* Get the Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)

For additional copies, please contact:

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
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Tel.: (41 22) 917.1972
Fax: (41 22) 917.0368


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