3 Key findings
The figures provided via key informant interviews (KIIs) needs to be contextualized within the pre-Haiyan WASH services coverage in regions VI, VII and VIII.
Considering the poverty incidence among the Filipino population, Cebu falls within the interval of 15.1%-30% whilst Western Samar and Leyte are included within the range of 30.1%-45%. It is noted that poverty incidence is reported at a provincial level, which does not account for variation across the province. Considering the magnitude of the poverty threshold in real population terms, Cebu and Leyte exceed 600,000 individuals below the poverty threshold whilst Western Samar ranks between 300,001 and 450,000 individuals, as displayed in map 2. Historically, the limited national and local WASH governance and the limited financial capacity of the population to access reliable WASH services, results in chronic qualitative and quantitative gaps in the service provision and access.
Where present, the existing water infrastructures lack in ordinary and extraordinary maintenance due to limited financial resources despite the local availability of skilled technicians; the construction and management of the sanitation facilities are left to households initiative, despite the existing – but often contradictory – standards and regulations. Consequently, lack of adequate and appropriate WASH access can be chronic public health challenges which can be further exacerbated during environmental disasters and environmental and public health emergencies.
The first phase of the WASH Baseline Survey has investigated 1,181 barangays in Cebu Province (175), Leyte Province (931) and in Western Samar (75), with the provincial level findings discussed below. For the purposes of this study Tacloban City and Ormoc City have been grouped with the provincial aggregates of Leyte. Data for each city is available upon request.