Philippines: Volcanic Eruption Appeal No. 22/2001 Final Report


This Final Report is intended for reporting on emergency appeals
Launched on: 09 August 2001 for 3 months for 250,531 budget revised on 12 November to CHF 165,890

Operational Developments

In the early months of 2001, Mayon Volcano was under the close watch of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) as it had been exhibiting abnormal activities indicating an eruption. Two major eruptions occurred within the period of June and July, displacing 46,914 individuals whose houses were within the 6-10 km danger zone. These people were from the municipalities of Malilipot, Daraga, Camalig, Guinobatan, Sto. Domingo and Ligao.

While a full scale relief operation was launched in August meeting the immediate needs of most people, in February 2002 - two months after the operation has ended - more than 4,000 people are still without permanent relocation sites; they await further funds from the local government to facilitate to move away from danger zones.

The local government units (LGUs), NGOs, and other agencies are now assisting in rehabilitation and medium term development. Most of this is focused on housing, livelihood programs and agricultural rehabilitation. The Philippines National Red Cross (PNRC), as an active member of Albay Provincial Coordinating Council, is finalizing arrangements with local donors to implement a programme of 'core shelter' assistance.

Red Cross and Red Crescent action

On behalf of the PNRC, the Federation launched an Appeal for CHF 250,531 in August which, due to a lack of funds was revised down to 165,890 in November. The operation provided direct relief support to 957 families (4,434 people).

The PNRC local chapter in Albay directly implemented the relief operation with the supervision of the National Office. Ten staff and more than thirty volunteers were mobilized in the operation. Most of the volunteers were PNRC Barangay health workers. Relief distributions came to an end on 30 October 2001.

Relief supplies came from Manila and were delivered to Albay using PNRC trucks. The respective LGUs provided additional vehicles, alongside those of PNRC Albay, to deliver the goods from Albay City to the distribution sites.

At the height of the operation, the collaborative efforts of the Albay Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (PDCC) - in which the PNRC is an active member - sustained the emergency needs of the evacuees. During the emergency period rescue, first aid, relief assistance, health, sanitation, hygiene and medical services were provided.


A shortage of water was one of the problems at each of the centers at the height of the evacuation as well as at the resettlement areas. Daily rationing was carried out by the local fire department with support from PNRC; rationing lasted for more than a month. Each site had a water source but no adequate means for transporting water.

Objective 1 In support of the water sanitation project of the local Department of Health, the PNRC aims to provide safe potable water to the evacuees.

Activities & Achievements

Activity 1. Provision of water containers. A total of 957 water containers were procured and distributed by PNRC.

Activity 2. Purchase of mobile water tanks. Three additional mobile water tanks were procured by PNRC; this reinforced the existing seven tankers. As the province of Albay is also vulnerable to typhoons and floodings, the three mobile water tanks will not only benefit victims of the volcanic eruption, but will also be used for future disasters.

Relief distributions

Through the distribution of food and nonfood items, PNRC assisted the LGUs in providing the basic needs for 957 families for six weeks. As the agricultural land was were rendered unproductive by the ash falls, these families are being supported by their respective LGUs with their food requirements long after the eruption of the volcano

Objective 1 To provide for the immediate food and partial nonfood needs of the 957 families for two months.

Activities & Achievements Activity 1: Weekly distribution of food commodities.

The beneficiaries of this project were all residents within the 6 km PDZ as well as those people living in the major gullies and river channels who were displaced from the barangays of Malilipot, Daraga, Camalig and Tabaco. The food distributions reached a total of 4,409 people over six weeks.


In addition to food items, the project purchased 2,914 blankets, plastic matting, and mosquito nets. These items were distributed with the food.



Relief Items While the PNRC had planned to purchase all relief items through local suppliers, the limited quantities available on the local market, meant that all goods were procured in Manila. The selection of goods for distribution and the selection of suppliers were closely monitored; a public bidding procedure used to ensure cost effectiveness and quality control. Delays were experienced during the purchase of relief goods. This was largely due to cash flow problems and to overly burdensome procurement procedures within PNRC; steps are being considered to revise these procedures. The following commodities were purchased:



PNRC vehicles were utilized throughout the project. One ten-wheel and two six-wheel trucks were used to deliver goods from Manila to Albay, whilst another mini-van was utilized by PNRC Albay during relief distribution. Staff and volunteers involved in the operation were transported from the chapter to the distribution sites by a further vehicle - a Toyota Hilux - owned by PNRC Albay. The same vehicle was utilized for registration and coordination meetings. Additional vehicles were provided by the LGUs to deliver relief supplies from the PNRC Albay warehouse to the distribution sites (this greatly reduced transport costs).

Staff and Volunteers

A PNRC headquarters staff member from the Disaster Management Services was assigned to monitor and support the operation. PNRC Albay-Legazpi in turn committed seven regular staff and more than 25 volunteers. The staff and volunteers were responsible for the identification and registration of beneficiaries, safeguarding stocks at the chapter warehouse and were involved during the distribution of the relief goods. The beneficiaries themselves also provided their labour during the distributions. Other staff involved at the PNRC headquarters consisted of those from the Finance and Accounting group, technical and clerical staff from the Disaster Management Services, the Office of the Director for Services and the Secretary General.


The National Society had planned to procure five VHF portable radios. However, VHF units with a frequency range 220-230 MHz (in line with the PNRC radio systems) have been discontinued. Hence, there was a delay in procuring the units. However, the NHQ temporarily released five units from its existing radios along with two mobile phones to facilitate communication to and from the field. Further to this operation, negotiations with the 'National Telecommunications Commission' have lead to new frequencies being assigned to PNRC.

Federation Delegation

Although the International Federation does not have a delegation in the country, the operation was supported by the Regional Delegation in Bangkok and by the Finance Unit in Kuala Lumpur. The Federation provided support during the assessment, in financial management and facilitated a training course in reporting.

Coordination & Management

The operation was managed by PNRC with support from the regional office of the Federation. At the country level, PNRC has established strong coordination links with Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCCs) and LGUs at all levels. Coordination between the PNRC Albay branch and the National Office was further strengthened through the assignment of a national staff in Albay to provide technical assistance at the chapter level.

Monitoring & Evaluation:

Weekly reports were submitted from the chapters to PNRC headquarters. Regular field visits were made by the Disaster Management Service.

Financial Update (see attached annex):

Following a revision of the budget in October 2001, the overall Appeal coverage was 110%. There was no significant variance between the budget and the actual expenditure.

Lessons Learned:

Overall the operation demonstrated that whilst PNRC has the capacity to manage large scale humanitarian operations, PNRC requires very specific support from it's Secretariat. The Federation was able to add value through advocacy, through appealing for international support, by providing technical support in assessment and financial management and by using the opportunity to work with the society to build capacity (e.g. planning and reporting).

A further lesson for PNRC has been that whilst the SPHERE standards provide an important set of minimum standards, the quantities suggested can at times be at odds with the local context. For example, quantities of food recommended by Sphere were not always compatible with quantities routinely packaged in the Philippines (i.e. special large size bags of rice had to be produced).

All International Federation Operations seek to adhere to the Code of Conduct and are committed to the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (SPHERE Project) in delivering assistance to the most vulnerable.

For support to or for further information concerning Federation operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation web site at

This operation sought to administer to the immediate requirements of the victims of this disaster. Subsequent operations to promote sustainable development or long-term capacity building will require additional support, and these programmes are outlined on the Federation's web site.

Simon Missiri
Asia and Pacific Department

John Horekens
Division of External Relations

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