In November 2018, an armed encounter between the government armed forces and the members of the New People’s Army (NPA) occurred in the remote villages of San Fernando, Bukidnon. There were 99 families (approximately 495 individuals) who fled their homes from Sitio Tibogawan to Sitio Spring in Barangay Kawayan, San Fernando. These families belong to Tigwahanon tribe.
Protest actions were carried out by the displaced families prior to their displacement because of their claims to an ancestral land that is still pending for application at the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP).
Sporadic clashes continued between the government armed forces and the communist rebels in Barangay Kawayan. Despite the insecurities, 37 out of 99 families returned to their habitual residences in order to have access to their livelihoods and provide food for their families, while others preferred to be reintegrated in the host communities because they fear for their safety and security.