A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Number of cases for dengue in the Philippines increased dramatically in 2019 compared to previous years. On 15 July 2019, the Department of Health (DOH) declared a national dengue alert due to the surge in reported cases of the mosquitoborne viral illness. Regions III, X, XII and Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) exceeded the alert threshold1 whereas, Regions IVA, V, VI, VIII and IX exceeded the epidemic threshold2 . On 6August 2019, the Government of the Philippines, through the DOH and National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (NDRRMC), declared a national dengue epidemic.
The declaration was made to ensure public safety and welfare amidst the increasing cases of dengue; and to enable a “whole-of-nation approach” to be taken to address the epidemic.
Twelve provinces declared states of calamity due to dengue, namely: Aklan, Albay, Cavite, Capiz, Eastern Samar,
Guimaras, Iloilo, Leyte, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Western Samar and Zamboanga Sibugay.
Dengue causes flu-like symptoms, including a sudden high fever coming in separate waves, pain behind the eyes, muscles, joints and bones; severe headaches and rashes with red spots. Those with symptoms get sick between four to seven days after being bitten by an infected Aedes mosquito. The disease can progress to life-threatening severe dengue, characterized by severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, seizures, bruising, uncontrolled bleeding, and high fever that can last from two to seven days. Complications can lead to circulatory system failures, shock, and death.
Based on the WHO Epidemiological Overview 2019 report, between 1 January to 14 December 2019, 420,453 cases, including 765 deaths, was reported in 2019. Most of the affected are children between 5 and 9 years old (26 per cent of the cases and 38 per cent of the deaths). For the year 2018, there was 216,190 cases reported with 1,083 deaths. The reported cases in December 2019 was approximately 94 per cent higher compared to the same period in 2018.
Although, based on the graph (right side), there was a significant decrease of dengue cases from week 31 to week 49. Further, the reported cases in week 49 (December) in 2019 which is 764 was approximately 806 per cent lower compared to the same period in 2018 which is 6,461. .