Peru

Peru: Earthquake Appeal No. 18/01 Final Report

Format
Appeal
Source
Posted
Originally published


This Final Report is intended for reporting on emergency appeals
The Federation's mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. It is the world's largest humanitarian organization and its millions of volunteers are active in 178 countries. For more information: www.ifrc.org

Appeal No. 18/2001; Launched on: 25 June 2001 for 2 months for CHF 2,009,000 to assist 55,000 beneficiaries. Full (revised) Appeal launched on 24 July, 2001 for CHF 4,970,787 for 6 months.

Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) Allocated: CHF 200,000
Period covered: June 2001 - March 2002 ;
last Operations Update (no. 11) issued 21 March 2002

IN BRIEF

Appeal coverage: 94.8%
Related Appeals: 01.22/2002 South America; 01.18/2002 Pan American Disaster Response Unit

Summary

On 23 June 2001 at 15.33 hours, a strong earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter Scale, struck the departments of Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna and Ayacucho in southern Peru. The epicentre of the earthquake was located 82 kilometres from the Pacific coast of Arequipa. Thirty minutes after the tremor, a tsunami or tidal wave struck Camana province, destroying houses and flooding crops with salt water over one kilometre inland. According to official reports, a total of 220,435 people were affected by the quake, 81 people died, 2,734 were injured, 37,000 houses, schools and health centres were damaged and 40,843 hectares of rice, potatoes and maize were destroyed.

The Peruvian Red Cross (PRC), supported by the Federation, initiated emergency response in the first 24 hours after the disaster. The National Society's relief and logistics directors immediately organized an initial assessment of damage and needs. The timely response of the Peruvian Red Cross and the Federation, as well as donors such as the British government through the Department for International Development (DFID), the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the governments of Ireland, Italy, Norway and Sweden facilitated the establishment of an efficient relief structure.

A Federation office was established in Lima with a field office in Arequipa to ensure the implementation and follow up of both the emergency response/relief and rehabilitation phases. A plan of action was drawn up for initial assistance to 55,000 people over six months. However, overall, the operation assisted 91,825 people during the two month relief phase and 13,170 people during the six month rehabilitation phase (see tables 1 and 2).


Table 1: Emergency and Relief Phases
Department
Beneficiaries
Tents
Mosquito Nets
Plastic sheeting
Blankets
Clothes
Food kits
Kitchen kits
Hygiene kits
Jerry cans
Arequipa
37,205
597
4,540
70
15,539
3,348
4,123
2,606
2,535
2,958
Tacna
38,900
170
1,110
60
12,870
339
1,085
1,436
870
870
Moquegua
15,720
253
1,000
120
8,000
430
1,561
1,000
1,500
1,500
Total
91,825
1,020
6,650
250
36,409
4,117
6,769
5,042
4,905
5,328
Table 2: Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Phase
Province
Place
Wat/san
Houses
IGP
DPP
OD
Families
Arequipa PRC branch
1
1
-
x
x
20
Brick ovens
-
-
294
x
x
294
Agua Buena
4
13
-
x
x
21
Arenales
41
-
-
x
x
82
S. J. Uzuña
3
7
-
x
x
7
Candelaria
-
16
-
x
x
16
Arequipa
-
3
-
x
x
3
Mollendo Quelgua
192
31
-
x
x
192
Catas
71
-
-
x
x
71
Pampablanca
191
29
-
x
x
191
Sta. María
92
2
-
x
x
92
Camaná PRC branch
-
1
-
x
x
10
Camamá An.
-
51
-
x
x
51
Quilca
-
-
120
x
x
120
Pucchun
-
-
581
x
x
581
Camaná C.
-
11
-
x
x
11
Moquegua PRC branch
-
1
-
x
x
10
Moquegua C.
-
16
-
x
x
16
Ilo Valley
-
27
27
x
x
135
Rinconada
80
80
-
x
x
80
Omo
65
65
-
x
x
65
Tacna PRC branch
-
1
-
x
x
10
Cairani
-
27
-
x
x
27
C. Cairani
-
54
-
x
x
58
Quilahuani
-
125
-
x
x
221
Ilabaya
-
-
-
x
x
250
TOTAL Families
2,634
Benefic.

The initial emergency relief phase was managed by the Peruvian Red Cross supported by the regional delegation for South America and the Pan American Disaster Response Unit (PADRU). This phase included the distribution of food kits, kitchen kits, hygiene kits, family tents, mosquito nets, clothes, blankets and jerry cans for the most affected, according to needs. Red Cross teams worked in the areas of first aid, health promotion in the communities, provision of psychological support to volunteers, epidemiological monitoring, and also conducted a health in disasters workshop for Red Cross branch volunteers. The relief operation was implemented in accordance with the schedule; however, logistics problems arose given the long distances to some isolated areas, delaying the initial response in some communities.

The rehabilitation phase was made up of five components: housing, water and sanitation, community income generation, community capacity building and organizational development. This phase required a two month extension given the large number and diversity of the activities implemented in 29 communities and six branches and as a result of funding constraints. Several re-assessments took place in the field and strategic alliances were built in order to assist the most vulnerable with the available funds. Due to severe damage in coastal areas of Arequipa department, in the context of family income generation, a rehabilitation commission was created during the relief phase by the Peruvian Red Cross, the Federation, the German Red Cross and the Spanish Red Cross. Through planning workshops with the communities, the commission identified several sustainable income generating programmes for the most affected families. These included the fishermen who had lost their boats and nets, the farmers with rice crops which were affected by the tsunami in Camana province, and the brick oven owners and leasees in Arequipa province.

The following summary tables show the final relief distribution list and beneficiary communities where the five rehabilitation components were implemented:

Objectives, activities and results

All activities implemented during the relief phase were included in the revised appeal and its plan of action. In many cases, the relief operation assisted larger numbers of the affected population than initially targeted, as reflected in the overall figure of 91,825 beneficiaries reached (55,000 planned). The activities for the five components of the rehabilitation phase: housing, water and sanitation, community income generation, community capacity building and organizational development, were identified during a community planning process in 29 communities and a branch vulnerability and capacity analysis in six committees which took place during September 2001. This took place as part of the transition between the relief phase and the rehabilitation phase. The rehabilitation priorities reflected an ongoing strategy with the affected communities with which the joint Peruvian Red Cross/Federation teams had already worked during the first phase. The water and sanitation, community income generation, community capacity building and organizational development components were fully completed, while the anti-seismic housing programme was 93 per cent implemented (600 housing units planned, 562 finally installed), due to funding constraints. The eight-month intervention was also an opportunity to strengthen National Society capacity, particularly at regional and branch level.

Relief distribution of food and basic non-food items

During the two months of the relief phase of the operation, 42 per cent of the population (91,825 people) affected by the earthquake received relief support from the Red Cross. The SPHERE project criteria were fully applied during the duration of the operation and distributions were carried out with the participation of beneficiaries and community organizations.

Objective 1: to alleviate beneficiaries' needs for basic food and shelter items.

Activity 1: Food distribution for 5,000 families (25,000 people) for one month.

6,769 standard family parcels of 48 kg (20 kg of rice, 10 kg of pasta, 5 kg of lentils, 1 kg of salt, 10 kg of sugar and 2 litres of vegetable oil) were distributed to affected families in Arequipa, Tacna and Moquegua departments, in a single distribution.

Activity 2: Non-food items: distribution to over 10,000 families according to the level of vulnerability.

5,042 families received a kitchen kit. In addition, 36,409 blankets, 6,650 mosquito nets, 4,905 hygiene kits and 5,328 jerry cans were distributed to affected families, according to needs. The hygiene kits and jerry cans for water storage were part of the environmental health brigade project.

Health Care and Water and Sanitation

Objective 1: To improve health and hygiene conditions during the relief phase.

The activities below were implemented in 25 communities in nine provinces, based on the assessment carried out by the Peruvian Red Cross health director and the Japanese Red Cross Society health team. During the emergency response, a medical structure was created at branch level, including a responsible officer per department, a programme coordinator and three health officers in Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna. Medical brigades consisting of doctors, nurses and volunteers assisted the affected population in the communities in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MINSA).

Activity 1: To provide medical assistance to the most vulnerable communities affected by the earthquake through medical brigades.

Five medical brigades, consisting of two doctors, two nurses and three relief volunteers, assisted 4,763 people in the field mainly affected by shock, influenza and chronic diseases. All relief health activities were coordinated with MINSA.

Activity 2: To initiate an epidemiological surveillance system.

Medical reports resulting from the field visits to the communities during the first weeks after the earthquake showed no risk of epidemics. After monitoring the situation for three weeks, the joint Peruvian Red Cross/Federation team concluded that there was no need no initiate a surveillance system.

Activity 3: To organize a relief health workshop.

A total of 23 volunteers from all the branches involved in medical brigades attended a relief health workshop, facilitated by the Federation relief coordinator in the first week of August 2001. The course included training in rapid assessment of medical needs during disasters, epidemiological surveillance systems and disaster management.

Objective 2: To improve health and hygiene during the rehabilitation and reconstruction phase .

Activity 1: To establish a regional team in the area of health.

A water and sanitation delegate (engineer) coordinated all water and sanitation rehabilitation and training activities in ten communities for six months (see table 2). The health and water and sanitation brigades merged to form a single community health team after the relief phase, implementing health promotion, water and sanitation and gender workshops at community level.

Activity 2: To distribute drinking water for 5,000 people in the most affected zones.

Three water tanks of 1,100 litres for 310 people were installed in the district of Catas (Islay-Mollendo), where wells were contaminated by high levels of salt and nitrates, due to the tsunami and excessive use of fertilisers in neighbouring areas. During the rehabilitation phase, 65 tanks of 600 litres were distributed to 325 people in Catas. An agreement with SEDAPAR (water supplier) also ensured provision of safe water to the affected families. Another nine tanks of 1,100 litres and five tanks of 600 litres were installed in nine communities in Arequipa and Tacna departments during the relief phase. A total of 4,360 people benefited from these tanks.

During the rehabilitation phase, several water supply works were implemented: installation of 650 metres of pipeline in the communities of La Haciendita and Santa Maria, 420 meters of water pipeline in Pampablanca and two water pumps in Quelgua. These installations provided 2,730 people with drinking water.

Activity 3: To establish three community health brigades.

Three environmental health brigades (two in Arequipa, one in Mollendo), consisting of four volunteers, one coordinator and one logistician, worked during the relief and rehabilitation phase in community based health promotion in Arequipa, Islay and Mollendo. A Federation consultant supported the teams during the first three weeks of the operation.

Activity 3.1: To implement a community hygiene-promotion project for 15,000 people.

The brigades implemented training workshops in gender, personal and domestic hygiene, handling and storage of water at home and the use of latrines to 3,272 heads of family (representing 16,360 people) in 46 communities. The training programme included the distribution of 5,328 jerry cans, purification tablets for one year and 4,905 hygiene kits. A Federation consultant supported the teams during the first two months of the rehabilitation phase.

Activity 3.2: To implement a vector control campaign in coordination with the Ministry of Health.

A total of 23 volunteers from Red Cross branches and 8 community leaders in Arequipa were trained in the preparation and use of insecticides by the community health brigades.

Activity 3.3: To implement a clean-up campaign in the communities at risk in the suburban areas in Arequipa, Islay and Mollendo.

The Red Cross teams and the communities implemented a campaign to remove debris and identify safe disposal sites. Five tool kits, consisting of 5 wheelbarrows, 5 bars, 10 axes and 15 shovels, were used in the campaign.

Activity 4: To install 223 latrines in the affected communities without basic sanitation systems.

A total of 223 latrines were installed in the communities of La Rinconada, Agua Buena, Totorani, San José de Uzuña and Arenales. The environmental health brigades organized a water and sanitation and use of latrines workshop for the targeted communities. This activity was not initially included in the plan of action, but was identified as a priority for the rehabilitation phase during the community planning process.

Shelter

Objective 1 To improve shelter conditions.

Activity 1: Distribution of tents and plastic sheeting to the most affected.

1,020 tents (between 12 and 16 square meters) and 250 rolls of plastic sheeting were distributed to affected families according to needs. During the rehabilitation phase, many families which managed to rebuild their housing returned the tents to Red Cross branches to include them in a disaster contingency stock.

Activity 2: To implement community earthquake resistant construction training for 1,000 families.

Volunteers from all the Peruvian Red Cross branches involved in the operation participated in a joint SENSICO (Civil Engineering Institute) and Federation anti-seismic construction training workshop, following which the information was disseminated by volunteers in 29 communities (approximately 3.000 families). Risk mapping was also disseminated in communities in Arequipa department with the support of UNDP.

Activity 3: To install 594 anti-seismic housing units for the most affected families

A total of 556 anti-seismic housing units for the most affected families were finally installed. For different reasons (funding constraints and serious disaster risk for the population in Catas), 38 housing units were not finally purchased. The families initially identified in the assessment in Catas were assisted by another component of the operation, water and sanitation. The 27 square metre temporary units had double superboard wall and calamine roof. A total of 206 housing units were installed in Tacna, 187 in Moquegua and 163 in Arequipa.

Activity 4: To install 6 anti-seismic housing units strengthening 6 Red Cross branches' capacity

As a support to the organizational development component, a housing unit was installed in every branch involved in the operation: Arequipa, Islay-Mollendo, Camana, Moquegua, Ilo and Tacna, in order to strengthen their disaster response preparedness and response capacity. The housing units hosted volunteer training workshops and were used as temporary warehouses.

Community Income Generation

As a consequence of severe damage in coastal areas of Camana and surrounding areas of Arequipa city, a rehabilitation commission was created during the relief phase by the Peruvian Red Cross, the Federation office and the German and Spanish Red Cross Societies. The joint team identified, through planning workshops with the communities, several sustainable income generating projects for the most affected families. These included the fishermen who had lost their boats and nets, the farmers with rice crops affected by the tsunami in Camana, and the family brick oven owners and leasees in Arequipa. A total of 4.620 people benefited from this component of the operation.

Objective 1: To restore the income generation of 924 families severely affected by earthquake and tsunami.

Activity 1: To set up a rotating fund for 581 owners and leasees of lands affected by the tsunami in Camana.

581 owners and leasees affected by the disaster received 2.905 sacks of fertiliser for half a hectare of land. After the first rice crop, they will support the rotating fund through the existing agricultural cooperatives, monitored by the Red Cross branch in Camana.

Activity 2: To set up a rotating fund for 120 fishermen affected by the tsunami in Camana.

The rotating fund included 70 kits of nets and 21 diving kits for 120 fishermen affected. The beneficiaries organized themselves to use the nets and diving equipment through existing cooperatives, monitored by the Red Cross branch in Camana.

Activity 3: To provide support to rebuild 115 family brick ovens affected by the earthquake in Arequipa.

98 owners of family brick ovens received 98 tonnes of clay, 980 calamines for water wells and 98 standard brick mould kits. After six months, each family will give one thousand bricks to the Red Cross branch in Arequipa in order to implement branch capacity building programmes. A further 17 families decided to refuse this exchange system, that was previously accepted during the community planning workshop, and rehabilitated their ovens with non Red Cross support.

Activity 4: To provide support to 108 farmers affected by the earthquake in Ilo Valley.

108 farmers affected benefited by a rotating system including 27 kits of tools (1 wheelbarrow, 1 shovel, 1 axe and 1 bar).

Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement -- Fundamental Principles and priorities

The work of volunteers represented a relevant component of the operation, not only in respect of response, but as a basis for National Society capacity building and community development. All volunteers attending the Federation workshops during the eight-months intervention replicated the same knowledge in their branches and communities where they implemented the operation. Some short-term results were achieved: over 160 volunteers and 6,000 people in the communities are better prepared to respond to disasters, and two Aimara indigenous communities initiated the process of creating a Red Cross unit in their districts. Gender focus was integrated in all the workshops implemented at both branch and community level. A specific workshop entitled 'Living together with respect' was facilitated by a Federation consultant in six branches, as part of the vulnerability and capacity assessment developed during the transition between the relief and rehabilitation phases. In a later stage, Red Cross volunteers replicated the contents and lessons learned during the workshop in the communities. Both women and men analyzed for themselves certain problems in the communities, such as family violence, roles and how to improve community development.

On the other hand, the operation was also a good opportunity to implement current regional disaster response systems in America, such as the Pan American Disaster Response Unit and the regional disaster response teams known as Regional Intervention Teams (RITs). The Peruvian Red Cross was supported by a PADRU delegate, based in Peru, during the first month of the field operation until a delegation structure was set up. Some 60 per cent of 26 the delegates working for Federation's Peru office and who undertook missions of between two weeks and seven months, were regionally recruited. A PADRU delegate worked as field coordinator during the initial response phase and relief experts from the Colombian and Costa Rican Red Cross Societies worked as field coordinators during the relief phase.

National Society Capacity Building

The eight-month intervention supported the National Society in improving its capacity, particularly at regional and branch level. A counterpart was assigned to all delegates and consultants in the field in order to strengthen the National Society's technical development, planning and decision making process and coordination with other actors involved on a daily basis. A regional coordinator and five local technical coordinators, funded by the Federation, were appointed to develop the five components planned for the rehabilitation phase, supported by the Federation team. Following sound professional performance, four local coordinators continued working for the Peruvian Red Cross at the close of the operation: three in the headquarters in Lima and one in Mollendo branch. On the other hand, the efficient implementation of joint Peruvian Red Cross/Federation activities helped to reduce the costs and increase the number of beneficiaries in most of the programme components. The volunteers learned a great deal through this operation. Federation workshops implemented during the operation included: Health in Disasters, Tracing in Disasters, Water and Sanitation in Disasters and Post-Disasters, Gender in Disasters, Community Based Disaster Preparedness, Anti-Seismic Construction, the Fundamental Principles for new volunteers and the Induction Course for Volunteers. All volunteers attending the courses replicated the same workshops in their branches and communities where they implemented the operation. The result is that over 160 volunteers and 6,000 people in the communities have increased awareness as regards disaster preparedness and response. Moreover, one of the major achievements in this operation was community involvement and good communication. The community planning process became a particularly useful tool for developing a confidential relationship between the volunteers and the potential beneficiary families.

In December 2001, the five local technical coordinators, worked with branch presidents on development plans to ensure the sustainability of the support to the most vulnerable families in at least one strategic community per branch. All these plans, the majority of which are based on income generating projects, are under study at the Peruvian Red Cross projects office. As a support to the organizational development component, the installation of six housing units in the Red Cross branches of Camaná, Ilo, Mollendo, Moquegua, Arequipa and Tacna strengthened the daily activities of the committees involved in the operation. These anti-seismic housing units hosted volunteers' meetings and training workshops, and sometimes were used as temporary warehouses. The Federation office also reinforced the response capacity of the Peruvian Red Cross by donating four second hand 4x4 vehicles and part of the technical equipment used during the operation, to be used as support to the development plans and also in case of potential disasters in the region.

Coordination

The initial response was coordinated with the National Institute for Civil Defence (INDECI), as the government coordination body for disaster response in Peru; the Development and Cooperation Fund (FONCODES), the National Food Assistance Programme (PRONAA), as major government relief assistance suppliers; SENSICO (The Civil Engineering Institute), SEDAPAR (public water supply company) and the municipalities. During the relief phase, there were three coordination groups: for shelter (including the Peruvian Red Cross, Caritas, SENSICO, El Taller, Labor OXFAM, UNDP, UNICEF, MSF and INDECI); for health (MSF, Peruvian Red Cross, UNICEF, SEPA, Asociación Estela Maris, the Peruvian Army and OXFAM), and for education and psychosocial support (UNICEF, Peruvian Red Cross, SEPA and El Taller). During the rehabilitation phase, the Peruvian Red Cross president and branch representatives, Federation delegates and local technical coordinators took part in several meetings with the Ministries of Agriculture and Fisheries, universities such as the National University San Agustin (UNSA) of Arequipa and the National University Jorge Basadre (UNJB) of Tacna, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Fund for Fishing Development (FONDEPES), Civil Defence (INDECI), CARE, OXFAM-Labor and Caritas to ensure satisfactory completion of the plan of action and to discuss initiatives planned after the rehabilitation phase.

At field level, a weekly meeting between the south macro-region coordination body and the Peruvian Red Cross/Federation coordinators took place in Arequipa to overcome potential difficulties in the implementation of the relief and rehabilitation phases. The programme coordinator and the field coordinators organized weekly regional meetings with the technical coordinators and assistants to discuss a common working strategy and to ensure adherence to Federation administrative and financial procedures. Between 20 and 22 January 2002, the head of Americas department and the head of the regional delegation for South America visited Peru to evaluate the operation, together with the president of the Peruvian Red Cross and the presidents of the branches involved in the plan of action. The mission included a field visit to Moquegua, to evaluate the construction and the community capacity building components.

Assessment and lessons learned

On 2-3 March 2002, a two day operation evaluation was held in Arequipa. Six beneficiary community leaders, thirteen members of the Peruvian Red Cross headquarters and branches involved in the operation, the head of Federation's regional delegation for South America, the head of Pan-American Disaster Response Unit, the head of Spanish Red Cross Office in Peru, ten delegates, officers and technical staff from Peru office, and one representative from the Institute for Civil Defence (INDECI) took part, discussing the lessons learned at national, departmental and local level after both relief and rehabilitation phases, and to agree on future Red Cross strategies regarding disaster preparedness and response. Some key lessons learned mentioned in this review were:

a. The objectives described in the appeal were covered, and sometimes surpassed. The efficient performance of the joint Peruvian Red Cross/Federation team helped to decrease the costs and increase the number of beneficiaries. However, a lack of funds made it necessary to reduce the number of families which benefited from the housing component.

b. The timely response of donors such as the British government through the Department for International Development (DFID), the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the governments of Ireland, Italy, Norway and Sweden allowed the rapid organization of a primary response structure.

c. The operation showed efficiency (rehabilitation phase) and effectiveness (both relief and rehabilitation phase), taking into account certain complex facts, such as the primary emergency contract with ECHO (the aid might arrive in the field in less than 72 hours after the disaster).

d. The actual response capacity and equipment of the Peruvian Red Cross were quite limited at branch level before the earthquake. The Peruvian Red Cross disaster response preparedness and response capacity was reinforced during the operation. Around 120 volunteers from all the branches involved attended workshops regarding disaster preparedness, gender, water and sanitation, health in disasters, tracing in disasters and encouraging traditional adobe construction. A basis was created for on going capacity building with strategic communities.

e. National Society decentralization and branch development (income generating training was defined as a priority by the branches) will strengthen response preparedness and response.

f. Improved Peruvian Red Cross and Civil Defense coordination, disaster contingency planning and protocols are needed.

g. Several strategic alliances with other actors worked well (CARE, PRONNA, UNDP) during the operation, and must be strengthened. Some agreements were signed eg. with CARE in order to share warehouses at zero cost in eventual future disasters in Peru.

h. One of the major achievements in this operation was the community involvement and good communication. The community planning process became a useful tool to develop a confidential relationship between the branches and the beneficiary families.

i. Some income generating activities succeeded during the implementation of the operation, such as the rotating fund for fishermen affected by the tsunami in Camana. The exchange system developed by Arequipa branch and brick oven owners demonstrated the possibilities of joint work to develop simultaneously both the income generation of vulnerable families and branch capacity building.

For further details please contact: Olaug Bergseth, Phone : 41 22 730 4535; Fax: 41 22 733 03 95; email: olaug.bergseth@ifrc.org.

All International Federation Operations seek to adhere to the Code of Conduct and are committed to the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (SPHERE Project) in delivering assistance to the most vulnerable. The procurement for this operation was carried out in full compliance and conformity with the Federation's standard for international and local procurement.

For support to or for further information concerning Federation operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation website at http://www.ifrc.org

This operation sought to administer to the immediate requirements of the victims of this disaster. Subsequent operations to promote sustainable development or long-term capacity building will require additional support, and these programmes are outlined on the Federation's website.