OIKOS humanitarian appeal - Peru

Originally published

Requesting Organisation:

OIKOS - Cooperação e Desenvolvimento
Rua de Santiago, 9
1100-493 Lisbon

Contact Person:

João Fernandes (Project's Department Director @ OIKOS Head Office)
Phone: +351.21.882 36 30
Fax: +351.21.882 36 38

José Correia (Country Representative @ OIKOS Peru)
Phone: Calle Rio de la Plata, 436

San Isidoro
Lima 27 - Peru
Phone: +51.1.349 02 19

Country of operation : Peru

Title of operation: Humanitarian emergency aid to the victims of the earthquake in the provinces of Paucar del sara sara and Parinacochas, Department of Ayacucho, Peru.

Starting date: July 2001

Duration: 6 months

Amount requested: 360.000,00 USD


OIKOS Cooperação e Desenvolvimento is a non-governmental organisation, based in Lisbon, and is currently working in developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. OIKOS’ main purpose is to help local people building sustainable development through medium or long-term programmes. OIKOS provides humanitarian aid to people affected by conflicts or natural disasters, before or alongside development projects. OIKOS is also committed to advocacy and lobbying to influence development co-operation policies of northern countries, specially those of the European Union. Development education has become more and more an important area and its principal main aim is to increase solidarity with the more disadvantaged people, particularly those living in LDC's.

OIKOS action is based on the promotion of the economic and social human rights as well as the humanitarian rights and take form in concrete projects and programs of food security, housing, water and sanitation, health care, social infrastructure, training, technical assistance, capacity building, etc. They start from an "integrated and community centred approach" and are implemented according to local culture and traditional models of social and economic organisation and according to a gender-sensitive methodology. Their objectives are generating lasting improvements in living conditions of the targeted populations, developing skills and the use of locally available resources, strengthening local associations and institutions, increasing people’s access to financial and technical services and encouraging them to tackle their problems themselves.

Vulnerability analysis, disaster prevention and preparedness, disaster management are used by OIKOS in order to improve the impact of relief and rehabilitation programs, particularly in response to natural disasters.

OIKOS has been working in Peru since 1992, where it has supported various community development and food security projects in close partnership with local partners in the suburban area of Lima and in the rural areas of the department of Ayacucho.

Summary of the projects supported by OIKOS in Peru

Budget (Euro)
Integrated Maternity and Child support Project Pamplona Alta, Lima
Development of environmental sanitation, health protection, extra-curricular education and creation of jobs’ programmes. This project benefited 6.000 people.
Centre of Pamplona Alta Pamplona Alta, Lima
Construction of a logistical and administrative infrastructure of support to COPROFAM 's1 activities
Support to JARC JARC's2 social activities Chincha Alta
Support to small productive projects and commercialisation of surpluses
Computer Training Centre San Juan de Miraflores, Lima
Training of computer trainers; training of children in the usage of computers; support to secondary and university students in communication technologies.
Promotion of the Black Woman Human Rights Lima
Support to women promotion initiatives of black minority defence associations
Basic needs response initiatives Suburban area of Lima
Support to local groups in their initiatives aiming the improvement of the living conditions in the poor neighbourhoods, namely in nutrition, health and hygiene, support to pregnant and marginalised women.
PRONEI3 Las Lomas, San Juan de Miraflores
Construction of a building, with two classrooms, to enable a proper location for children from poor neighbourhoods to have an education and their spare-time occupied
Husbandry and apiculture support Lima
Promote the breading of cuys and apiculture, benefiting 40 poor families
Small animals and horticulture production San Juan de Miraflores
Contribute to the improvement of poor families diet, through cuys’ production. Development and support the production of hydroponic cultures
Ecological Project of La Mar Ayacucho, La Mar
Integrally develop and complement 5 programs: production of cuys, fisheries, worms, horticulture and orchards production
Micro-credit and Community banks’ Programme Ayacucho
Promote animal production in the regions of Tambo and Anco (Ayacucho) and the commercialisation of surpluses. Promote savings and credit as a way to break the poverty cycle these families are inserted.
Since June 2000, OIKOS decided to reinforce the co-operation with south-American countries with special efforts to be made in Peru, Bolivia and Equador. Currently OIKOS have a regional co-ordination in La Paz (Bolivia) and a Country Representation in Lima, Peru. For instance, OIKOS is conducting several assessments for development/food security projects in the region of the Andes, both in Peru and Bolivia. OIKOS aims to concentrate the efforts in two departments with similar economic, cultural and social issues: Oruro in Bolivia and Ayacucho in Peru. For the beginning of 2002 are planned the launch of three long-term development projects. Our intervention in the current emergency is in the framework of a long-term development approach aiming to reduce the social and ecological vulnerability of the beneficiary communities.


1. Description of the Emergency Situation

1.1. Sources of information used

The gathering of information was carried out through direct observation and started after an appeal received from local authorities. Other sources of information used were: INDECI - Instituto Nacional de Defensa Civil (Peruvian Institute of Civil Defence) and the CTAR (a National institution of the Presidency). A more accurate assessment is know being carried out by OIKOS, in partnership with local authorities (Alcaldias) and local partner NGO's (TADEPA, COPROFAM, etc).

1.2. Background

In 1998, exports reached USD 5.72 billion. Eight billion dollars are spent annually on imports of consumer products, supplies and food (wheat and dairy products). These imports displace national products in the internal market and generate unemployment and poverty.

In Lima, 45.2% of the population lives in extreme poverty; in the rural areas this figure is 66.1%. In the non-poor sector, 11% of children under age five suffer from malnutrition; among the extreme poor, 43.5% suffer malnutrition. Government investment directed toward women is no greater than 1% of the national budget.

Between 1993 and 2000, the total spending on social programs can be estimated at approximately USD 13 billion. For specific programs on poverty relief, an estimated USD 5.2 billion was spent in the same period. Nevertheless, total poverty grew from 51.1% in 1997 to 54.1% in 2000. Currently, 14.8% of the population lives in extreme poverty. (ENNIV 2000).

Life expectancy is 69 years, lower than the continental average.

Child mortality fell from 80 for every thousand live births in 1990 to 54 in 1998 (UNDP, INEI, Instituto Cuánto), but child mortality in Peru is still more than double the Latin American average (IDB 1999). The sum allocated to social spending was USD 3.5 billion. At least one-third of social spending was financed with loans from the World Bank, Interamerican Development Bank and other sources, for emergency programs and social compensation.

The social programs provide basic services to the extreme poor without helping them to overcome their situation. (Informe Control Ciudadano, 2001, p. 72)

1.3. Current Situation

Last June 23rd, an earthquake, graded 7.9 up to 8.1 in the Richter scale, struck the south of Peru. According the INDECI 213.430 people were affected. 41.394 houses have been destroyed and 17.684 damaged.

After surveying the damage on June 24, Peruvian President Valentin Paniagua declared a state of emergency in the departments of Arequipa (population 1,036,000), Moquegua (population 143,000), and Tacna (population 262,000), as well as in the provinces of Parinacochas and Páucar del Sara Sara in the department of Ayacucho (population 520,000). President Paniagua has asked for international assistance in responding to the most urgent needs of those impacted by the earthquake.

The disaster office of the Ministry of Health reports that although there are moderate or little damage in urban health centers, 90% of them continue to function. To date have been reported destroyed at least 10 peripheral health facilities, 6 of them in Ayacucho Department.

The Minister of Education indicated that damage to educational infrastructure is estimated at between USD 50 and 60 million.

The Minister of Agriculture reported that 409 kilometres of irrigation canals, 77 reservoirs, 190 distribution canals, 52 wells, and 91 kilometres of rural roads have been damaged. The Minister reported 71,000 rural families have been affected by the damages on the irrigation systems.

2. Location and Beneficiaries

2.1. Exact location of the operation

Provinces of Paucar del Sara Sara and Parinacochas; Department of Ayacucho - Peru

2.2. Number and Characteristics of Direct beneficiaries

The intervention of OIKOS will be in two areas where people were already living in extreme poverty and now must face the consequences of the earthquake: Paucar Sara Sara and Parinacochas. Those provinces are the most affected of the Department of Ayacucho.

Most of the beneficiaries lives in rural areas and their major economic activities are agriculture and cattle-raising. However, only 8,9% of the land of Parinacochas and 19,2% Paucar del Sara Sara is productive for the agriculture sector. The Department of Ayacucho - and specially the beneficiary provinces - is one of the poorest in all country :

Standard of Living

Very Poor
Index standard of living
La Mar
Víctor Fajardo
Paúcar del Sara Sara
Total Ayacucho

Source: Perfil Región Sur Ayacucho- Huancavelica, SNV-Perú. FONCODES-UNICEF 1995.

Households with basic needs - living bellow an adequate standard of living)

nº of Households
% households with basic needs
% households living in poverty *
% households living in extreme poverty**
6 145
3 410
8 236
Víctor Fajardo
7 672
2 743
14 681
La Mar
16 221
5 996
Paúcar del Sara Sara
2 907
14 664
35 765
118 440
Fuente: Perfil Región Sur Ayacucho- Huancavelica, SNV-Perú. Tomado de: INEI 1 994.
* 1 basic need
** > 2 basic needs

OIKOS humanitarian intervention will contribute to improve the basic living conditions of beneficiaries at different levels. The criteria used in order to select the beneficiaries of the humanitarian intervention were established according to two factors:

  • the level of poverty of the families
  • by nature, some of the resources are more comprehensive and can benefit the general population of the affected communities

- Essential relief items
- Housing materials and technical assistance
- Seeds program
- Water and Sanitation systems;
- Social Infrastructure;
- Essential medicines and renewable medical material
Affected families that were already living in extreme poverty (+-250 families) before the Earthquake
- Seeds program
- Water and Sanitation systems;
- Social Infrastructure;
- Essential medicines and renewable medical material
The 55% of those affected people living in poverty (+-400 families)
- Water and Sanitation systems;
- Social Infrastructure;
- Essential medicines and renewable medical material
A significant part of the global population of the beneficiary provinces (+- 8900 households), specially those affected by the natural disaster (+-3.600 affected people according official figures)

3. Humanitarian Operation

3.1. Objectives

3.1.1. Overall objectives

To contribute for the long term and sustainable development and social well being of the affected population, specially the most affected families of the Provinces of Paucar Sara Sara and Parinacochas;

To reduce the social and ecological vulnerability of the beneficiary communities;

3.1.2. Project purpose/ Specific objective

To improve the basic living conditions for sustaining the lives and dignity of the victims affected by the Earthquake in the poorest communities of Paucar del Sara Sara and Parinacochas.

3.2. Results

The expected results of this interventions are:

a) Beneficiary families receive essential relief items to meet their basic needs

  • Distribution of household kits (kitchen sets, blankets and mattress) per family in need
  • OIKOS will negotiate with WFP the distribution of Food aid if the beneficiary population is not reached by other agencies.

b) Families helped to built their own houses

Distribution of shelter materials; technical assistance to introduce improvements in house design; introduction of improved ovens designed to afford fuel (wooden).

c) Water and sanitation systems established/improved in the beneficiary communities

Construction of family latrines and emergency repairs of wells, reservoirs and piped water supplies.

d) The Population of the beneficiary districts have access to essential medicines and medical renewable supplies

Distribution of Emergency Health Kits (according WHO standards) to the rural health posts and co-ordination with local health authorities and international agencies to guarantee that the minimum standards on basic health care are met, specially the prevention of the outbreak of epidemics.

e) Basic social infrastructures are rehabilitated

Emergency repairs in the rural schools and health posts affected by the earthquake (assessment is being carried)

f) Resumption of agriculture

Rehabilitation of the irrigation systems affected by the Earthquake and distribution of seeds and tools

3.3. Activities

The humanitarian operation that already begun is part of a long-term approach in order to achieve poverty reduction and sustainable development. This intervention will have a duration between 6 and 9 months. During this phase a more comprehensive assessment will be carried out and a development programme will be negotiated with all stakeholders: local communities, local government authorities, Peruvian partner NGO's and Donors.

The humanitarian operation is divided in the following main areas:


a1. Survey of the most needed families

a2. Acquisition and delivery of household kits (See composition in point 4.2)

a3. Distribution of the essential relief items to the identified families

a4. Negotiation with World Food Programme (WFP) for the distribution of food aid and food-for-work if beneficiary population is not reached by other WFP partner agencies.


b1. Assessing the physical site for houses taking into account the local culture, the disasters preparedness and risk management and the improvement of human habitat;

b2. Identification of poor families most affected and in need of assistance to rebuild/repair their houses.

B3. Acquisition and delivery of housing materials to enable local communities to rebuild their own houses (see detailed list of housing materials in point 4.2)

b4. Distribution of building materials

b5. Technical supervision in order to facilitate the introduction of improvements in the traditional design of permanent houses.

After a consultation with beneficiary families, local leaders and authorities and partner organisations, OIKOS will help families to introduce improvements in their habitat:

  • The traditional houses in this region are small, integrating only two rooms (one bedroom for all family and one living/dinner room/warehouse). OIKOS will try to help the introduction of a design with 4 rooms (total area 502 m): 1) kitchen/dinner room; 2) bedroom for adults; 3)bedroom for children; 4) multi-purpose living room (warehouse, etc.).
  • OIKOS will make available the introduction of an improved oven (local materials and design already tested in other arias of Peru) that will enable local communities to afford fuel (wooden) and women to spend less time and efforts cooking.


c1. Identification of the communities in need of water supply and sanitary systems

c2. Meeting with the beneficiary population to establish priorities for emergency repairs in the water systems, latrines and waste disposal systems.

C3. Distribution of material necessary to repair the water systems and latrines selected by local communities as priority


d1. Acquisition and delivery of Emergency Health Kits (WHO standards)

d2. Co-ordination with local health authorities and specialised agencies in order to guarantee the adequate use of essential drugs and medical supplies.


e1. Identification of rural schools and health posts in need of rehabilitation

e2. Community mobilisation for the rehabilitation of social infrastructures

e3. Acquisition and provision of tools and building materials and technical assistance


f1. Identification of irrigation systems to be rehabilitated

f2. Identification of farming families in need of seeds and tools

f3. Acquisition and delivery of tools, materials and technical assistance for the rehabilitation of irrigation systems

f4. Distribution of local seeds in order to reactivate the production (see point 4.2: Kit of seeds per family)

f5. Seeds-for-work programme. Distribution of selected seeds (see Kit in point 4.2) to 150 workers that will be involved in the rehabilitation of the irrigation systems, rural roads and other rural infrastructure.

4. Resources

4.1. Human resources

Project co-ordinator - Expatriate in charge of the project management and directly involved in the distribution of essential medicines, seeds and food-for-work/seeds-for-work programme.

Civil Engineer - Supervision of social infrastructures rehabilitation

Water Engineer - Supervision of the water and sanitation programme and the irrigation systems rehabilitation

Foremen /Maestros de Obras (2) - Supervision of social infrastructures rehabilitation

Foreman /Maestro de Obras (1) - Rehabilitation of water and sanitation systems

Foreman /Maestro de Obras (1) - Supervision of the rehabilitation of productive infrastructure (irrigation, rural roads, etc.)

Accountant assistant - Responsible to keep record of all accounts and accounting documents. Supervised by the project co-ordinator.

4.2. Material resources

a) Composition of household kits

Household Items per family (average of 6 members)

* Exchange Rate: 1 USD = 3,5 Soles.

b) Kit of building materials for the family houses

c) Kit of Seeds to be distributed per family

A combination of seeds appropriate to the region, climate and tradition practices will be given to each family with a total value of $50 USD/family.

The seeds used in the region are: Bean (Haba), Wheat, Barley, Alverja, Kiwicha and Quinua.

d) Seeds-for-work Programme

The seeds-for-work programme will be used for the rehabilitation of social infrastructures and irrigation systems

e) Rehabilitation of social infrastructure and irrigation systems

The needs of resources for the social infrastructures, irrigation systems and water and sanitation are still under evaluation. However we can assume that the materials to be used are:

  • Infrastructures: tools, cement, concrete, gravel, nails, corrugated tin sheets, wood, adobe, paint;
  • Water and sanitation: tools, cement, gravel, concrete, PVC, water pumps, etc.

f) Essential drugs and medical renewable material
  • Two medical emergency kits (WHO), each one planned to benefit 10.000 people for a period of three months in emergency situations.

4.3. Logistics and Administration


  • Rental of 4x4 pick-up vehicle (2)
  • Rental of a Truck (8 Ton)
  • Motorcycle (1)

Office and Administrative equipment
  • Rental office/Transit House for technical team
  • Computer and printer
  • Furniture and stationary

  • Phone/fax/E-mail

5. Budget

N.B: The budget lines 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 are presented in terms of Lump Sum. The needs assessment is still in course. We will prepare a detailed budget for those components before de 15th of July 2001.


1 COPROFAM - Family Promotion Committee (Comité de Promoción de la Familia) - Local NGO

2 JARC - Rural Catholic Agrarian Youth (Juventud Agraria Rural Católica) - Local organisation

3 PRONEI - Non-scholar Programme of Initial Education (Programa No-Escolar de Educación Inicial)