Pakistan: Monsoon Flash Floods - Revised Emergency appeal n° MDRPK006

Situation Report
Originally published
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This Revised Emergency Appeal seeks CHF 92.6 Million in cash, kind, or services to support the Pakistan Red Crescent Society to assist 900,000 people (130,000 families) for 36 months, and will be completed by 31 July 2013. A Final Report will be made available by 31 October 2013 (three months after the end of the operation).

Appeal history:

  • A revised emergency appeal was launched on 15 November 2010 for CHF 130,673,677 (USD 133.8 mil or EUR 97.9 mil) to assist 130,000 families (some 900,000 people) for 24 months.

  • An emergency appeal was launched on 19 August 2010 for CHF 75,852,261 (USD 72.5 mil or EUR 56.3 mil) for 18 months to assist 130,000 flood-affected families (some 900,000 beneficiaries).

  • A preliminary emergency appeal was launched on 2 August 2010 for CHF 17,008,050 (USD 16,333,000 or EUR 12,514,600) for 9 months to assist 175,000 beneficiaries.

  • Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF): CHF 250,000 (USD 239,406 or EUR 183,589) was allocated on 30 July 2010 to support the National Society’s response to the emergency.


With the relief phase closed in April 2011, the operation focused on the planning and design of the current recovery programme, employing the integrated and community based approach in six selected districts of flood-affected provinces of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK), Punjab and Sindh. The relief phase was evaluated in June-July 2011. The findings and recommendations have been shared with the Pakistan Red Crescent Society (PRCS) / the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), made public. Together with the findings of the Real Time Evaluation conducted in 2010, the recommendations of the relief phase evaluation have informed the PRCS / IFRC response to the 2011 floods in Sindh.

In the first quarter of 2011 an implementation plan was developed for the recovery phase. Before drafting the outlines, a vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) was undertaken in December and January. An Integrated Recovery Programme (IRP) was designed for 39 villages in six districts in three provinces. While the size and range of the IRP was based on the findings of the VCA, it was also designed in line with the available funding. The essence of the IRP is a programmatic shift from assistance to the beneficiaries towards resilience building of the community. The assistance to the flood affected population, in particular those who lost their houses and livelihoods, continues, but the focus is on sustainability and a positive effect on the resilience of the community.

The PRCS management delegated the responsibility for the implementation of the IRP to the three Provincial Branches (KPK, Punjab and Sindh). The IRP required a substantial upscaling of the human resources in the Provincial Branches (more than 125 new staff members). It took more than two months to advertise for the positions, recruit the required staff and introduce them to the essentials of the IRP and induction in the IFRC tools before the actual involvement in the villages.

Also, the IFRC country office required decentralization of the operations, in order to maintain its responsibilities for the transparency, accountability and provision of technical advice. As such the country office restructured its operational hubs in the field and strengthened the offices in the Provincial Branches. The IFRC sub-offices worked directly with the PRCS provincial branches in November 2011 for the implementation of all IFRC supported programmes. Bank accounts were opened for efficiency in financial transactions and more responsibilities were delegated to the field, in the cause of the planning and budgeting exercises at provincial level.

The final quarter of 2011 was an eventful one. After the establishments of the first Village Committee in September, the Village Committees started the selection of beneficiaries for the cash-based components of shelter and livelihood. The design of these activities was based on the experience gained from a pilot project in Thatta, Sindh for 43 households. At this time, a baseline survey was conducted, providing a much-needed overview of the targeted populations’ existing conditions prior to the interventions planned under the IRP. The same period saw the operations run into difficulties, causing delays in the implementation: massive flooding in Sindh which prompted a six-month emergency operation, a harsh and drawn-out winter in KPK and the suspension of the activities in Punjab due to internal irregularities and court cases against the Punjab Branch.

The benefits for the beneficiaries started to show visible physical results from November 2011 onwards. This was largely due to the health interventions undertaken by the PRCS health units including provision of coaches trained in community-based health and first aid (CBHFA) and psychosocial support. In addition, it was a result of the cash programming picking up pace in shelter and livelihood interventions, and the water and sanitation “hardware” components of building latrines and water supply schemes being established. The cash programme had selected the General Post Office as potentially the best service provider with the largest outreach to the beneficiaries. However in the course of the programme the services rendered by the Post Office remained far below the agreed delivery criteria and delayed the implementation of the IRP.

Considering the IRP approach was a first for the PRCS and the IFRC in Pakistan, a mid-term review of the recovery phase was conducted in early 2012 to examine the progress achieved towards the stated objectives; the appropriateness of the recovery planning; and methodology employed to achieving the recovery objectives. The findings and recommendations of the review have generated current good practices, and identified challenges to overcome and actions required to strengthen the delivery and overall impact of the recovery assistance during the remainder of the operation. The learning from this review has further informed the revision of the recovery phase particularly aspects related to integrated approaches, cash programming, and sector interventions in health, shelter, livelihood, disaster risk reduction and beneficiary communication.

This revised emergency appeal presents a revised plan for the recovery phase of the appeal. The actions undertaken within the relief phase have not been altered. It shows the outcome of the modifications which were made in the activities across the different sectors in order to create an integrated approach in the selected six districts. The plan is based on extensive discussions with the PRCS Headquarters and the Provincial Branches. It includes an extensive upscaling of the human resources of these Branches in order to be able to meet the targets. However these targets have been gradually reduced as a result of cross checking the beneficiaries identified in the original VCA which was executed in December/January 2011. Notwithstanding the upscaling and increase of staff, the complexities of the Pakistan environment and the security situation had an impact on the actual implementation rate which did not reach the expected pace. Therefore the implementation plan has been reviewed and the operation has been extended by 12 months.