Pakistan: Fortnightly drought watch bulletin (1-15 November, 2021)

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1. Weather Summary for the 1st fortnight of November 2021

During the first fortnight of November 2021, Rain bearing systems produced Light rainfall at isolated places in the country. Spatial distribution of the rainfall is shown in Figure No.1. The chief amounts of rainfall recorded across Pakistan during the period 1-15 November, 2021 are shown in Table-1 below;

Figure 1 shows Spatial distribution of the recorded rainfall during the period. The Figure 2 depicts the Percentage Departure of Rainfall from the normal. Below normal rainfall were received over most of the places in the country during the first fortnight of November, 2021,. Farmers are advised to keep themselves abreast of weather updates and plan field activities accordingly to minimize weather induced losses to matured/cultivated crops.

2. Drought Situation Analysis

Spatial drought analysis results using different indices are represented in Fig. 3. In Balochistan, Districts Chagi, Kharan, Panjgur, Washuk and Kech are facing Moderate while Kalat, Awaran and Quetta are facing Mild Drought Conditions.

In Sindh Province, due to the persistent rains during last month, Drought conditions have become normal, whereas districts like Karachi, Tharparkar, Badin, Chhor and adjoining areas are showing slightly wet conditions.

3. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values during first fortnight of November 2021 are shown in Fig.4. NDVI values are good in north Punjab and along the Indus belt depicting the good vegetation over there, whereas low NDVI values are observed in the southern parts of country. Depiting the less vegetation over that areas.

4. Land Surface Temperature (LST)

Land surface Temperatures (LST) during first fortnight of November 2021 are represented in Fig.5. In northern, eastern and central parts of the country, temperatures are low as compared with southern and western parts which are showing higher values. Most of the central areas are facing temperatures between 25°C. Day and night Temperatures may drop further in the coming days.

5. Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI)

Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) derived from MODIS product MOD13A2 (NDVI) and MOD11A2 (LST) is shown in Fig. 6, which indicates that mild to moderate dry conditions prevail across southwestern Balochistan Nokkundi and Dalbandin areas whereas mild wet conditions prevail at isolated places in the Sindh province.