1 Background Information
1.1.1 History District
Matiari was previously a taluka of district Hyderabad. On the 4th of May 2005, this taluka was separated from Hyderabad and was awarded the status of a district.
Historically, this region was ruled by different dynasties, including the Soomras (1024-1351), the Summas (1335-1520), the Arghuns (1520-1650), the Kalhoras (1657-1783) and the Talpurs (1783-1843). When Britain invaded the subcontinent, General Charles Napier, a commander in the British Army, defeated the Talpur dynasty and conquered Sindh in 1843. He was appointed as the first Governor General of Sindh. The province was divided into different administrative units and assigned to Zamindars (landlords) to collect taxes for the British government. Later on, the rulers developed these areas as urban centers. People migrated from other districts and provinces as well and started to reside here. The British Empire named these small developed areas as "Talukas". They built a network of roads, schools, dispensaries and many other civic amenities throughout the province.
At the time of the independence of Pakistan, in 1947, district Matiari was a taluka of district Hyderabad until 2005 when it was given the status of a district.
The district lies in 680 14” 8’ to 680 14” 40’ east longitudes to 250 26” 20’ to 260 5” 43’ north latitudes. The district is bounded by district Saanghar on the east, district Jamshoro on the west, district Shaheed Benazirabad on the north and district Hyderabad and Tando Allahyar on the south.
The whole district is irrigated through canals and the river. The plane lands of Matiari are very fertile and productive. Indus River flows alongside the western border of the district. The lands along the river are formed of silt and sandy loam. Being in the Indus basin, this district has hardly any barren lands. Only a few lands (as seen in the irrigation map below) are barren while the rest are quite fertile croplands.
The climate of the district is moderate as a whole. The months of May and June are very hot during the day with maximum and minimum temperatures being 410 C and 260 C respectively.
However, due to pleasant breeze, the temperature falls abruptly as the night falls. December and January are the coldest months with maximum and minimum temperature of 250 C and 110 C.