1 Background Information
This district Khairpur was part of the region ruled by Kalhoro and Talpur dynasties. The Talpurs and Kahoros arrived in Sindh during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Both the dynasties are the decedents of Abbasids. After the decline of the Abbasids’ caliphate, Kalhoros and Talpurs arrived in the subcontinent and settled in northern Sindh and Punjab.
The history of the state of Khairpur is tied up with the history of the Talpurs and their rule over Sindh. Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur established his control over Upper Sindh by 1783, established his capital at Burahan and renamed it Khairpur, in 1786. He extended his territories over a vast area, eventually helping his kinsmen from Hyderabad in expelling the Afghans from the province by 1823. As early as 1811, he divided his territories into three emirates, each ruled by one of his sons, with his eldest being the principal Amir. The princely state of Khairpur was recognized in 1832 by the British, who allowed it to retain its political existence after the British annexation of Sindh in 1843.
In 1947, when Pakistan gained independence, Khairpur was one of the princely states that opted to join Pakistan. In 1955, the Government of Pakistan announced the abolition of all the princely states and Khairpur was annexed into the then province of West Pakistan1.
Khairpur district is located in north-eastern Sindh and is bounded on the north by Shikarpur and Sukkur, on the east by India, on the south by Sanghar and Shaheed Benzeerabad and on the west by Larkana and Noshero Feroz. The district lies from 680 10’ to 700 10’ east longitude and 260 9’ to 270 42’ north Latitude.
The climate of Khairpur is typically that of the upper Sindh region. There are two well defined seasons, hot and cold. The former begins at the end of March and extends till October. May,
June and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are about 420C and 270C, respectively. December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are about 250C and 70C, respectively. The estimated annual rainfall in the area is 5.47 inches (139 mm)2.