Pakistan

Pakistan Emergency Situational Analysis - District Kashmore, July 2014

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1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 History

The district Kashmore was created on 13-12-2004 by bifurcating district Jacobabad into two parts. Earlier Jacobabad had five talukas, and after bifurcation, three Talukas namely Thull, Garhi Khero and Jacobabad were included in district Jacobabad whereas Kandhkot and Kashmore were included in the district Kashmore. After some time Tangwani was given the status of taluka and the number of talukas of district Kashmore increased from two to three. The Head Quarter of district Kashmore is situated in Kandhkot.

Historically, Talpur dynasty ruled this area. Talpurs are a Baloch tribe settled in Sindh and Punjab. They are descendants of Mir Tala Khan. They arrived in Sindh during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Talpurs settled in northern Sindh, and spoke Sindhi language. Their descendants and allies formed a confederacy against the Kalhora dynasty. Later, however, they enjoyed good relations with the Kalhoras and were invited by them to help organize unruly Baloch tribes living in Sindh. However, the Talpurs gained power by overthrowing the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani. Peace between the two warring tribes was soon established after the Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II issued a Firman (Royal Dictate) in the year 1783, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh. This brought an end to the ferocious fighting and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur tribes. Talpur dynasty ruled Sindh from 1783 to 1843, and was overthrown by the British East India Company led by General Charles James Napier.

In 1841 A.D. a treaty was signed between the Talpur rulers of Sindh and The East India Company. John Jacob was sent to Khan Garh, in accordance with the treaty. John Jacob established cantonment within the narrow belt belonging to Mirs. The first and the most remarkable thing, John Jacob did was the restoration of peace. This was not possible without properly chastising the outlaws. He dealt with the situation with such a high handedness that soon after his arrival, the plunderers were scared off and were brought under control. When peace was restored it was followed by reclamations and development. Land growers started coming back to cultivate their lands. Businessmen and artisans also followed them. When security was assured, Bazaars started flourishing and the area, where there had been a desert before, it became a trade Centre. The grain market and cattle markets also started functioning in the newly established town.

But the local landlords did not always accept the British Rule. In 1857 Dil Murad Khoso and Darya Khan Jakhrani were sent to Kala Pani (a colonial-era prison in Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India) due to their involvement in the freedom movement.

1.1.2 Geography
The Headquarter of district Kashmore is situated in Kandhkot. Kashmore district is situated in northern part of Sindh, bordering Ghotki district, Jacobabad district, Shikarpur district and Sukkur district within Sindh. It also borders Balouchistan on the northern side and Punjab on the eastern side. Kashmore is located at the tri-junction, connecting three Provinces, and is a gateway to the Punjab and Balochistan provinces. Because of its distinguished geographical location and cross-road connecting borders with three provinces, Kashmore has a unique identity. The Indus River runs through the Eastern side of Kashmore district. The southeastern side of Kashmore district has forest of Katcha that supports wild animals. The Thar Desert is on the Eastern side of the district, and is home to wild desert animals.

On the east side, this district shares its boundary with district Rajanpur of Punjab; on the west side, it touches district Jacobabad and Shikarpur; on north side, district Dera Bugti of Balochistan; on the south, district Ghotki and Sukkur of Sindh touch this district.