Pakistan - Earthquake: OCHA Situation Report No. 19

Ref: OCHA/GVA - 180
OCHA Situation Report No. 19
South Asia - Earthquake


(based on government/humanitarian consultations)

Populations affected: 3.2-3.5million (500,000 families)

Casualties: 58,000

Injured: 79,000

Houses: 70% destroyed, 30% damaged

No. shelters required: 480,000

No. of food insecure: 2.3 million

No. needing 3.2 -3.5 million

No. children needing school support: 960,000

No. requiring watsan support: 3.2 - 3.5 million


1. The homeless estimates go as high as 3.2 million, scattered in 15,000 villages. It is increasingly recognized that all delivered and mobilized tents will not be sufficient to address the enormous shelter needs. Increasingly, non-tents options are being actively pursued, including the use of salvage material to create and rehabilitate shelter. Shelter "repair kits" are being distributed to facilitate this.

2. A two-pronged approach has been developed to assist populations based on their locations in the upper and lower valleys. Helicopters will provide tents, blankets, jerry cans and plastic sheets to inaccessible areas in the upper valleys. In accessible areas, the camp management cluster will improve camp conditions, provide technical assistance in setting standards for camp management, registration and gender issues. Contingency planning is also being undertaken in case mass evacuations down to the valleys occur and provisional sites are being envisaged for those who will voluntarily relocate.

3. The watsan cluster will begin to prioritise, (1) provision of hygiene kits for the 200,000 people in the inaccessible mountainous areas, (2) provision of sanitation and water, education on hygiene behaviour, particularly disposal of human waste, in the spontaneous camps and organized camps.

4. An estimated 70% of the health infrastructure has been damaged beyond use in the affected areas. The National Plan indicates that out of 564 health facilities, 291 have been destroyed and 74 damaged. Up to 4 million people require primary health facilities, 75,000 hospital treatment, with 9,000 pregnant women and 600,000 children under five, as well as those disabled through amputation or other causes are in acute need of treatment.

5. Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common diagnosis reported by almost all health facilities, field hospitals and mobile teams in Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Rawalakot. One child has died of an ARI in Muzzafarabad. There are no current reports of measles and no reported outbreaks of major communicable diseases. The total number of reported tetanus cases has increased from 104 to 113 in 3 days time, with related deaths now at 22.

6. There is an increasing concern that many of the population in the Allai Valley, particularly those above 5,000 feet or higher will need to relocate due the lack of suitable shelter. The authorities are planning for the establishment of a camp at Meira, to accommodate 40,000. Other sites are being identified, but it is vital that the UN agencies together with NGO partners are mobilized as soon as possible in an effort to ensure that the camps are correctly sited and properly serviced.

7. As the window of opportunity to deliver assistance to remote areas and pre-position stocks before the winter sets in narrows daily, coordinated planning in logistics remains of primary importance. An Interagency Transport and Logistic Operations Plan has been created and the recently created Joint Government/UN Logistics Cell are operating.

8. Due to damaged food stocks, food requirements are anticipated until mid-March. The WFP Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment, just completed, has confirmed 2.3 million food insecure people. Priority is now being given to: airlifting 3-4 months supply of food to 200,000 persons in mountainous areas, trucking of rations to accessible areas, supplementary feeding of 240,00 children under 5, and livelihood support.

9. The Government and the international community have been jointly reviewing progress and evolving needs in the emergency response to date, in an effort to develop complementary strategies for the immediate, short and medium term.


10. The Government has presented its National Action Plan to all humanitarian players in Islamabad on Tuesday 1 November. It will provide a framework for further development and strengthening of the international humanitarian community's response with technical expertise and by addressing identified gaps in human, financial and material resources.

11. The Government is clarifying its command structures for the relief operations, particularly the civil-military interfaces. Both national and international relief actors are aware that a joint, flexible, holistic and complimentary approach is required under the circumstances.

12. Other ongoing strategic planning processes at include the prioritisation of the most immediate relief operations by international actors for the next two weeks, and establishing the corresponding priority funding requirements.

13. UNICEF Executive Director, Ms. Anne Venemann, is in Pakistan, to highlight the catastrophic situation of the hundreds of thousands of children affected by this disaster.

14. A helicopter media visit to the remote devastated areas is being planned in advance of one-month anniversary of the earthquake for this coming weekend. The aim of the trip is to highlight the coordination challenges between different international, humanitarian and military actors and to show different agencies' action on the ground.


15. Members of the IFRC Regional Disaster Response Team, in conjunction with Pakistan Red Crescent volunteers and IOM, have this week begun to place mixed-gender teams on the ground in mountain villages that have yet to receive assistance. Each team will remain for 2-3 days, before moving by helicopter to another village. The teams will call forward alternative shelter kits (plastic sheeting, tools, wire, etc.), food, and non-food items for delivery via helicopter re-supply flights. This operation will continue as long as donor support for the helicopter assets continues, and weather permits.


16. A comprehensive planning exercise, in close coordination with Government entities, is reflected in an Interagency Transport and Logistic Operations Plan, and the recently created Joint Government/UN Logistics Cell. The underlying principles of the operation are based on using road transport to the extent possible, with forward bases being established for helicopter operations to remote or otherwise inaccessible locations.

17. The Government's logistic concept based upon its available military assets and including the use of animal transport and field formations for delivery beyond areas accessible by road or air is based on similar principles. The Plan makes a number of assumptions, identifies the related risks and proposes related strategies, such as setting up distributions at the furthest reachable points and pre-positioning of cargo to maximise movements of priority cargoes within the next 45 days.

18. Main Logistics Hubs will be established at major transhipment points; Extended Delivery Points will be established at: Chatterplain/Batagram, Balakot, Mansehra, Muzaffarabad and Bagh. Final Delivery Points will be established at Shangla Valley, Alai Valley, Jabari Valley, Sharan Valley, Kagan Valley, Neelum Valley, Jehlum Valley and Poonch. Main Air Hubs will be established at Abbotabad and Islamabad.

Food and Nutrition

19. The WFP Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment, just completed, has confirmed 2.3 million food insecure people. The need to preposition food before 30 November in areas likely to be cut off has been stressed by the Government and humanitarian actors. The modalities of transporting the food will be elaborated by the joint UN/Government Logistics Cell.


20. There is a need for expanded immunization programmes, disease surveillance and vector control. The cluster strategy has been developed in close consultation with the Ministry of Health. It includes, inter alia, emergency hospital care for the wounded, establishment of referral hospitals at 10 locations and humanitarian health hubs at 7 locations to serve the primary health care systems, positioning of primary health facilities in areas of greater population density, maternal care, mobile clinics and mobilization of adequate number of female medical staff.

21. WHO established in Abbas Hospital a Coordination Cell for the measles and tetanus vaccination campaign. The campaign is expanding with more mobile vaccination teams to cover remote areas around Muzaffarabad.


22. Water and sanitation systems were devastated by the earthquake in most urban areas. Since the earthquake, spontaneous camps created by populations seeking assistance have created additional watsan needs. The strategy developed by the cluster also highlights the need to address the particular culturally sensitive watsan needs of vulnerable groups.


23. The Education strategy seeks to address the needs of some 960,000 school-age children, recognising that there will be little opportunity to reconstruct the 10,000 school buildings affected in under six months. The overall objectives of the strategy include ensuring that children can either return to school or start schooling in temporary conditions. Five focus areas have been established in the strategy, developed in close coordination with the Ministry of Education: development of minimum standards for educational provision, access to temporary schools/learning environments, including the use of suitable tents, provision of water and sanitation facilities, school feeding in designated areas, the development of alternative shelter options for school needs, and involvement of the private sector in the response, provision of a range of school materials and ensuring the inclusion of evacuated/injured children in activities, inter alia.


24. The Protection strategy addresses the protection needs of the vulnerable population, with focus on women and children (between 1.6 to 2.2 million). The key issues to be addressed include the short term needs of unaccompanied and separated children and women, providing care and counselling to emotionally affected children, women and disabled, ensuring a safe environment and enabling a return to normalcy. Similar issues of concern are reflected in the National Plan, which additionally identifies the need for protection from all forms of abuse, for legal assistance for women and children (in relation to property, for example), and custody of unaccompanied women and children. The Ministries of Social Welfare and Special Education and Women's Development work closely with the Cluster, with 'partnerships' being proposed in the National Plan with international organisations to administer programmes and provide technical expertise.

Muzaffarabad Overview

25. The United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) will support the establishment of a Humanitarian Situation and Planning Cell, which intends to support the clusters in planning and implementing the relief programmes.

26. On 29 November, the Area Humanitarian Coordinator met with representatives from Muzaffarabad civil society, who stressed the importance of food: "shelter without food is pointless".

Mansehra Overview

27. While assistance continues to be provided to affected populations throughout the district, the military in Mansehra are urgently preparing to assist 75,000 to 100,000 persons who may come down from the northern valleys as conditions there deteriorate. The humanitarian community in Mansehra assist in establishing tented villages in the Mansehra area, in anticipation of these population movements.

Bagh Overview

28. The following clusters are operational: Emergency Shelter, Camp Management, Health, Food and Nutrition, Water and Sanitation. Critical roads in potentially inaccessible areas have been identified: Sudhan Gali, Lasdana, Rangla, Haji Pir Pass and Bani Min Hansan, Sunk and Kuda. Shelter, health and food clusters will be urged to stockpile in these areas and develop communications plans.

Batagram overview

29. Whilst the overall damage to buildings and property in Batagram was less severe than in other areas of the country, the damage in the outlying areas particularly in the mountainous regions is severe. The affected population is estimated to be approximately 190,000.


30. In Muzaffarabad, the cluster is gearing up for distribution, covering needs in the Neelum and Jehlum Valley (by air/by road), and reporting to other relevant clusters in order to cover food and watsan needs in the area. Approximately 60,000 shelter kits/tents are in the pipeline.

31. In Mansehra, tents and shelter materials that have been ordered from local vendors have been bought by the military, cutting supplies to NGOs and affecting agreements with implementing partners.

32. In Bagh, a total number of 17,000 tents have been distributed as of 29 October. The areas at high risk have to be identified urgently and shared with agencies and NGOs. There is a general concern about access to areas close to the Line of Control.


33. In Muzaffarabad, UNHAS/WFP helicopter operations commenced on 30 October with three MI-8 helicopters based there. US military will assist WFP in clearing the site for an airfield warehouse complex.

34. Warehousing is expanding in Muzaffarabad. UNICEF and WFP are currently erecting rub halls at the main warehousing area.

35. UNJLC, while having a good grasp of the shelter and food clusters' needs, requires more details of remaining projected logistical requirements. Tracking of NFIs distributed, warehoused and in the pipeline continues to be an issue.

36. In Mansehra, UNJLC are now chairing the Logistics cluster and compiling information on logistics assets and requirements in the region.

37. In Bagh, there are daily UNHAS air services to/from Islamabad. UNJLC will assist with information gathering and logistical movement.


38. In Muzaffarabad, WFP distributed 85 MTs of mixed food commodities to 1,008 families.

39. In Mansehra, WFP is planning to provide food to 47 tented village locations. 16 locations have received food items or release requests (to be processes by the military camp administration over the coming days). High energy/BB5 biscuits are being distributed with measles vaccinations.

40. In Bagh, food is being distributed off the back of trucks and there are concerns that when "scheduled and planned" distribution is to be carried out, stocks will already be depleted. WFP is having difficulty in establishing rub halls as the equipment, which arrived in batches, has been distributed to different agencies.


41. In Muzaffarabad, the prevalence of ARI and other communicable diseases are replacing acute trauma cases. However, infected wounds and complicated injuries are still filling hospitals and clinics. While support to this public health problem continues, attention should also be given to physical handicaps and mental health rehabilitation.

42. Besides injury treatment, the main challenge is to upgrade the surveillance and health information system to be able to detect, intervene and control communicable disease outbreaks.

43. In Mansehra, additional (fatal) cases of tetanus have been reported. More tetanus/diphtheria vaccination has been received and vaccination campaigns continues. Upper respiratory tract infections and stomach illnesses are reportedly on the rise. WHO and MDM are currently involved in establishing primary health facilities in the Hazara University and Jabba farm sites.

44. In Bagh, there is an urgent need for psychosocial support programs. Cholera kits are available and vaccination teams continue their work in the area.

45. There is a reported increase in the number of cases of bloody diarrhea and scabies. There is insufficient medication available locally. The lack of women health workers continues to be a concern.


46. In Muzaffarabad, the water supply situation is continuously improving. Latrine material arrival will improve progress in installation in all identified camps by the end of the week. Progress is also being made in providing water to the populations of Bagh, Garhi Dupatta and Hatia Balla with the installation and operation of treatment plants. An estimated 90% of the water service is now operational with the exception of the old city where 15-20% of the area is now receiving supplies.

47. An assessment of the rural areas completed by the government indicates that in 2,500 villages 1,250 water supply schemes have been damaged.

48. In Mansehra, the focus is on repairing over 70 water facilities/points in the Mansehra area and on watsan interventions in tented camps and hospitals. OXFAM and UNICEF will be establishing facilities at the Hazara University and Jabba farm sites.

49. In Bagh, extensive damage prevails. The influx of people to cities will create increased risks. There is a need to work closely with NGOs.


50. In Muzaffarabad, the Government has reopened the government educational institutions. UNICEF is supporting the Directorate of Education in creating temporary safe learning spaces in 9 camps and government schools in Muzaffarabad. Tents, basic teaching and learning materials have been provided to 9 camps in Muzaffarabad and 38 tents to NGOs to create learning spaces in Bagh. UNICEF is also developing a second Project Corporation with Alisei (International NGO). They will focus on 3 Union Councils of the sub-district of Bagh where all 69 schools are totally collapsed in the quake. ALISEI aims to reach 10,886 children and train 263 teachers.

51. In Bagh, GOAL has offered 30 large tents (80ft x 25ft) to any organization/government to be used as schools or shelter. ALISEI is taking the lead of the education cluster.


52. In Muzaffarabad, implementing partners are required to assist in the registration of children. Some 1,200 children are registered in Jalalabad and Abbas camps, 3% of children are living with extended families. Psycho-social counselling is being provided in one camp.

53. In Mansehra, work continues on developing a referral system for unaccompanied children and for closer cooperation with ICRC who has undertaken registration of unaccompanied and vulnerable children. A number of organizations are also providing psychosocial support to children and establishing child-friendly spaces in tented villages (World Vision). UNICEF, World Vision and IOM are also exploring ways of providing training for government/military staff that will be involved in transporting populations from unsustainable locations.


54. In Muzaffarabad, eight camp sites are being managed. Assessments in the Jehlum Valley are ongoing. It appears that people have descended from the hills and discussions are underway as to whether to establish camps in the valley. Sanitation in the camps remains a main concern.

55. In Mansehra, a need to determine the status and to collect geographic data on approximately 50 tented villages and settlements has been identified.

56. In Bagh, UNHCR has set up camps in two areas. UNICEF and their implementing partners will provide water and sanitation needs of the camps. There is a need to engage with local NGOs and community leaders who have showed intentions of setting up camps.


57. In Mansehra, a representative of the US Embassy in Islamabad has assumed responsibility for the cluster coordination. The cluster head is exploring ways of improving communications between clusters, possibly by establishing a listserv for cluster heads.


58. In Mansehra, the DCO has provided a list of estimated reconstruction costs related to the repair of infrastructure (such as roads, bridges, local government institutions, health


43. All detailed cluster information (meeting minutes, assessments, contact information etc.) is being posted on

44. The latest information on projects and funding for the Flash Appeal, and for the emergency overall, can be found on the Financial Tracking Service ( information on earthquake appeals and funding is available on ReliefWeb (

45. Contact details of focal points for information on in-kind and cash contributions can be found at

46. OCHA will revert with further information as it becomes available. This situation report, together with further information on ongoing emergencies, is also available on the OCHA Internet Website at

Tel.: +41-22-917 12 34
Fax: +41-22-917 00 23

In case of emergency only: Tel. +41-22-917 20 10

Desk Officers:

Ms. Merete Johansson, direct Tel. +41-22-9171694
Ms. Kirsten Gelsdorf, direct Tel. +41-22 917 1843
Ms. Rebecca Richards, direct Tel. +41-22 917 3183

Press contact:

(GVA) Ms. Elizabeth Byrs, direct Tel. +41-22-917 2653
(N.Y.) Ms. Stephanie Bunker, direct Tel. + 1-917 367 5126


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