Pakistan

Pakistan: 2022 Monsoon Floods - Situation Report No. 5 (As of 9 September 2022)

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This report is produced by the OCHA Humanitarian Advisory Team (HAT) in Pakistan in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It covers the period from 3-9 September 2022. The next report will be issued on or around 16 September 2022.

HIGHLIGHTS

• Over 1.5 million houses in Sindh damaged or destroyed – nearly 88 per cent of the total nationwide.

• Education and learning interrupted for an estimated 3.5 million children, including in at least 61 refugee schools.

• Nearly 800,000 refugees live in districts officially notified as ‘calamity hit’, over a quarter in Peshawar district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

• Over 1.2 million hectares of agricultural land has reportedly been damaged in Sindh alone.

• Multisector rapid needs assessments are rolling out in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

More than half a million more houses in Pakistan were reported damaged or destroyed in the past week, with the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) reporting more than 1.17 million damaged houses and nearly 566,000 destroyed houses as of 8 September. By nearly all available metrics, Sindh has been most affected by the heavy rains and flooding that have swept the country this monsoon season – particularly notable given that Sindh and Balochistan are historically drought prone areas. Nearly 88 per cent of all damaged or destroyed houses – over 1.52 million houses – are in Sindh, and the province has also recorded the highest number of human casualties: 577 people killed and 8,321 people injured, out of a total of nearly 1,400 deaths and more than 12,700 injuries, including at least 496 children killed and nearly 4,000 children injured across Pakistan. Gender-based violence (GBV) as well as child protection and other protection concerns have reportedly more than doubled since the pre-monsoon period, according to the Protection Sector.

Nearly 6,700 km of roads have been damaged or destroyed, with over 1,600 km reported in the past week alone. In addition to impeding people from fleeing to safety or towards services, this has also complicated efforts to deliver aid into affected areas – as has the destruction of at least 246 bridges. Of the damaged roads, some 40 per cent are in Sindh, 24 per cent in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 22 per cent in Balochistan. Initial information indicates that more than 22,000 schools have been damaged in Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and over 5,500 other schools are being used to shelter people who have been displaced from their homes, interrupting education and learning for over 3.5 million children.

The NDMA reports that some 33 million people have been affected by the heavy rains and floods and has officially notified 81 districts as ‘calamity hit’ – 32 in Balochistan, 23 in Sindh, 17 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, six in Gilgit-Baltistan and three in Punjab. Some 664,000 people are reportedly living in relief camps – over 190,000 more than a week ago. Many more are reportedly living with host communities. UNHCR indicates that nearly 800,000 refugees live in districts notified as ‘calamity hit’ by the Government of Pakistan, including some 210,000 in Peshawar district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; 170,000 in Quetta, Balochistan; 77,700 in Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; and 71,500 in Karachi, Sindh. While continued rainfall and the submergence of some schools and learning centres inhibit full assessments, initial estimates indicate that 61 refugee village schools have been affected (26 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 35 in Balochistan), disrupting education and learning for over 27,000 children.

Estimates indicate that over 1,460 health facilities have been affected by the heavy rains and floods, and the Health Sector reports that access to health facilities, healthcare workers, and essential medicines and medical supplies remain limited. Early disease surveillance indicates that tens of thousands of people are affected by diarrhoea, malaria, acute respiratory infections, skin and eye infections and typhoid. Initial reports have been received of increased dengue cases in refugee villages in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while an outbreak of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) has reportedly affected 45 districts in Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Islamabad Capital Territory.

FAO reports that over 1.2 million hectares of agricultural land in Sindh have been damaged, while in Balochistan 61 per cent of livestock keepers in assessed districts have already reported symptoms of transboundary animal diseases. Nearly 50 per cent of affected households in assessed districts of Balochistan earn their livelihoods by keeping livestock, with 36 per cent reporting losing at least one livestock asset, 46 per cent reporting damage to livestock shelters, and 29 per cent reporting loss of animal feed stock. NDMA reports indicate that around 500,000 livestock have been lost due to the rains and floods in Balochistan, representing 66 per cent of the nearly 755,000 livestock deaths reported nationwide.

While daily rainfall has decreased since peaking two weeks ago, medium flood risk levels persist along the Indus River, between Sukkur and Kotri districts in Sindh and rising to high flood risk downstream of Kotri into the Arabian Sea. On the Indus River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Tarbela Dam – the world’s largest earth-filled dam – has been filled to its maximum conservation level of 1,550 feet (472 meters) for weeks, while the Chashma Barrage in Punjab province is only half a foot (0.15 meters) away from reaching its 649 feet (197 meters) maximum conservation level. Standing water continues to cover vast swaths of the country; satellite-detected water extents mapped by the United Nations Satellite Centre (UNOSAT) indicate preliminarily that at least 75,000 km2 of land in Pakistan analysed between 1 and 29 August appears to be affected by floodwaters, including some 48,530 km2 appearing to be croplands.

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