Pakistan

Islamic Relief Pakistan (IRP): Emergency Response Plan (Pakistan Monsoon floods - 2022) - Date Created: 29 - July - 2022 Date Last Update: 07 - September-2022

Attachments

Background

Pakistan is among the 10 countries whose population is acutely exposed to natural disasters largely because of its poor governance, corruption, weak infrastructure, and an inability to effectively implement policies to reduce risk. According to the data compiled by Verisk Maplecroft, a UK-based risk management company, Pakistan ranks at seven with around 136 million (70% of its population) exposed to natural hazards. Pakistan is situated within a hazardprone region and is exposed to a variety of natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, and droughts. Rapid population growth, uncontrolled development, and unmanaged expansion of infrastructure are the most common factors that result in more people being vulnerable to natural hazards than ever before.

The monsoon season in Pakistan results in the variable intensity of rainfall from June to September every year. Floods i.e. flash, riverine, and urban floods are the most recurrent phenomenon coupled with other potent hazards like Cloudburst, Landslides, and GLOFs (Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods) can/has turned into a disaster posing numerous challenges to the disaster management system of the Country. Whereas, less rainfall in certain parts of the Country results in a drought-like situation. Keeping in view, the current situation in districts of Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh along with the ongoing Monsoon Season merits adoption of a comprehensive and proactive multi-sectoral strategy, and response is required for dealing effectively with all associated challenges.

1.1 Humanitarian Situation of Monsoon Rains:
The unprecedented flooding wreaked havoc across Pakistan in the aftermath of heavy downpour. Climate induced heavy rainfalls are being observed five times higher than what Pakistan normally receives during the monsoon season. Starting from Balochistan and Sindh, heavy downpours have enveloped entire Pakistan. Till now, the country has received eight major spells of torrential rains. As of 31 August, rainfall in the country is equivalent to 2.9 times the national 30-year average. This has caused widespread flooding and landslides, with severe repercussions for human lives, property and infrastructure. To date, 81 districts across Pakistan have been declared ‘calamity hit’ by the Government of Pakistan (32 in Balochistan, 6 in GB, 17 in KP, 3 in Punjab and 23 in Sindh). These numbers remain dynamic given the ongoing rains, and the number of calamity-declared districts is expected to increase.

As per the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) report dated 6th September 2022 current floods have resulted in 1355 deaths (including 481 children, 601 males, and 273 female) and 12722 people have been injured (including 5339 men, 3400 women, and 3983 Children) since 14 June to date. Further 1712514 houses have been damaged (564831 fully and 1147683 partially damaged], including 59078 in Punjab, 1498976 in Sindh, 88390 in KP, 64385 in Balochistan, 521 in AJK, and 1164 in GB, moreover, 6579 KM roads infrastructures have vanished, 246 Bridges have collapsed, 173 shops have been destructed and 753,187 animals also perished[1].

Southern and central Pakistan have been most affected, particularly Balochistan and Sindh provinces. Balochistan has received 5.1 times its 30-year average rainfall as of 27 August, while Sindh’s is 5.7 times its 30-year average.1 Hill torrents occurred in Balochistan, Sindh and south Punjab, while most districts of Sindh were inundated, with water unlikely to recede soon.
According to PDMA Balochistan, the death toll from recent monsoon rains and floods in different parts of Balochistan has risen to 263, including 125 men, 59 women and 79 children while 166 persons have been injured. Most of the deaths in rain-related incidents are reported from Quetta, Bolan, Kech, Zhob, Duki, Khuzdar, Kohlu, Mastung, Harnai, Qila Saifullah, Sibi and other districts of the province. The PDMA also reported that the heavy rains caused loss of 500000 livestock, 64385 houses are damaged by the rains and floods in the province out of which 18410 houses are completely destroyed while 45975 houses are partially damaged.

Meanwhile, 1500 km length of roads and 18 bridges are damaged due to the floods. PDMA Sindh reported 542 Deaths (including 206 men, 100 women, and 236 Children) and 8321 persons have been severely injured. Meanwhile, 1498976 (including 487410 fully and 1011566 partially) houses have been damaged, moreover, 2578 KM roads infrastructures have vanished, 45 shops have been destructed, 26815 animals perished and out of which 24144 losses have been reported by Sindh Livestock Department, 3,277,502 acres of cultivated land have also damaged and 63 Bridges are collapsed.

According to initial assessments in Sindh, the Provincial Government of Sindh had declared ‘Rain Emergency’ dated July 02, 2022, through the notification vide letter no: SOA/CMS/Misc: 39 (R. E. Cell) 2022 in whole provinces. The District of Badin has been badly affected by the recent moderate to heavy spells of rainfall in July and August 2022, where most rural and around 70% of urban and semi-urban areas have been inundated with water. In rural areas, almost 70% of crops in the district are badly affected and damaged due to heavy rains. The affected communities are also facing problems related to access to facilities such as health and water supply due to stagnant water in the streets of cities, towns, and other Katcha ways.
The stagnant water has also brought an increase of mosquitoes and other insects, which may cause the outbreak of malaria and dengue in the district, while intake of contaminated water may cause diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases.

PDMA KPK had also declared the emergency on dated 5th August 2022 Ref no F.2 (E)/2022-NDMA (MW/Monsoon222-I). District Tank of KP has been worst affected during recent torrential monsoon rains and flash floods. On 3rd September 2022, Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) has informed that weak monsoon currents from Arabian Sea are penetrating upper and central parts of the country. It will likely ignites Rainwind/ thundershower (with isolated heavy falls) in Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad,
Rawalpindi, Murree, Attock, Chakwal, Jhelum, Sialkot, Narowal, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat,
Sheikhupura, Mianwali, Khushab, Sargodha, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin, Jhang and Faisalabad from Saturday (night) to Tuesday. Moreover, Rain-wind/thundershower (with isolated heavy falls) is expected in Dir, Swat, Kohistan, Mansehra, Abbottabad, Haripur,
Malakand, Bajaur, Peshawar, Mardan, Charsadda, Swabi, Nowshera, Kurram, Kohat and Waziristan on Sunday and Monday. Further, Hot and humid weather is likely to continue in Sindh, Balochistan and south Punjab during next three to four days.