Yellow Fever Outbreak in Nigeria: NCDC Situation Report #5 (21 November 2017)

Situation Report
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  • A Yellow fever outbreak is currently active in Nigeria with four states recording confirmed cases (Kwara, Kogi, Kano, and Zamfara). Kano state is a new state this week.
  • However, total of fourteen states have reported suspected cases (Abia Borno, Kogi, Kwara, Kebbi, Plateau, Zamfara, Enugu, Oyo, Anambra, Edo Lagos, Kano and Nasarawa States).
  • In the reporting week: Kano State had one confirmed case among some delayed samples sent from the Kaduna Lab; Nasarawa reported one presumptive positive case from Nasarawa LGA; IP Dakar confirmed two more cases from Yagba East LGA in Kogi State; An additional eight presumptive positive cases from Kogi State were shipped to IP Dakar.
  • The outbreak started with a case of Yellow fever confirmed in Ifelodun LGA in Kwara State, Nigeria on September 12th, 2017.
  • The index case was a seven-year-old girl who presented with fever, jaundice and vomiting of blood, with no record of previous vaccination and no history of recent travel.
  • As at 21st November, 2017, a total of 276 suspected YF cases have been line-listed (Table 1).
  • Of these, 133 (48.2%) suspected cases had their blood samples collected and sent to the laboratory for confirmation of YF.
  • Of the 133 samples collected, 66 (49.6%) had tested positive for Yellow fever and 1 (0.8%) inconclusive result in five Nigerian laboratories.
  • As at 21st November 2017, thirty samples (44.8%) samples out of the 67 (positive and inconclusive) samples in Nigeria were confirmed positive by the Dakar Laboratory, twenty-three (34.3%) were negative and 14 (20.9%) results are being awaited. Male to female ratio is about 2:1 with one hundred and eighty five (67.0%) cases been males for all cases while among the confirmed, 63.3% were males.
  • Predominant age groups affected were 20yrs and below accounting for 65.9%.
  • Total number of deaths (among suspected, probable and confirmed cases) is 45, and 7 among confirmed cases.
  • Case fatality rate (CFR) for all cases (including suspected, probable and confirmed) is 16.3% and 23.3% for confirmed cases.