Nigeria

Yellow Fever Outbreak in Nigeria: NCDC Situation Report #31 (10 - 16 September 2018)

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HIGHLIGHTS

In this reporting week 10th September – 16th September, 2018:

o There were 178 suspected cases added to the national line-list

o Six presumptive positive cases and one inconclusive case were reported from two of the diagnostic laboratories

o The NCDC Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) reported three presumptive positive cases and one inconclusive- presumptive positive cases from Anambra (2) and Osun (1)

o Maitama District Hospital (MDH) laboratory reported three presumptive positives cases- FCT (2) and Benue (1)

o Last IP Dakar confirmed case from Nigeria was on 6 th June, 2018 from River State

o A three year 2019-2021 Yellow fever (YF) Preventive Mass Vaccination Campaign (PMVC) proposal plan is being developed

SUMMARY OF OUTBREAK

  • A yellow fever outbreak is currently active in Nigeria. Confirmed cases have been recorded in eleven States (Kwara, Kogi, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi, Nasarawa, Niger, Katsina, Edo, Ekiti and Rivers States): in 22 Local Government areas (LGAs) [Table 1]

  • Since the beginning of the outbreak, 134 samples (presumptive positive and inconclusive) in 67 LGAs have been sent to IP Dakar for re-confirmation [Figure 1]

  • All Nigerian states have reported suspected cases in 548 (70.8%) LGAs

  • From the onset of this outbreak in September 12, 2017, a total of 3,015 suspected yellow fever cases have been line-listed as at week 37 [10 September – 16th September, 2018 (Table 1)].

  • Of the 3,015 suspected cases, 2,760 (91.5%), had blood samples collected and sent to the Nigerian testing laboratories for confirmation

  • Of the 2,760 samples collected, 117 (4.2%) tested positive for yellow fever (presumptive positive cases) and 17 (0.6%) inconclusive results in six Nigerian laboratories (Table 1)

  • Of the 134 (presumptive positive and inconclusive) samples in Nigeria, 47 (35.1%) samples have been confirmed positive by IP, Dakar. 77 samples were negative. Awaiting results of nine samples from IP Dakar [Table 1].

  • Predominant age groups affected among the suspected cases are 20 years and below (children and younger adults) accounting for 1881 (62.4%) [Male 1,144 (37.9%): Female 736 (24.4%)] o Median age is 15 years (range 1 – 92 years) o Male to female ratio is 1.4 to 1 [Male 1,734 (57.5%), Female 1,281 (42.5%)]

  • Predominant age groups affected among the confirmed cases are 20 years and below (children and younger adult) accounting (57.4%) o Among the confirmed cases, male to female ratio is 1.8:1 (male 63.8%, female 36.2%)

  • Yellow fever vaccination campaigns have been successfully completed in six states o Nasarawa, Cross River, Akwa Ibom; Kogi, Kwara and Zamfara and in fifty-eight political wards in 25 LGAs in Borno State o 2018 phase 2b PMVC to be implemented from 22nd November – 1 st December, 2018 in Sokoto, Kebbi, Niger, FCT, Plateau and some LGAs in Borno States. Target population 9 months to 44 years.

  • Total number of deaths in all cases (suspected, probable and confirmed cases) is 51, while 10 deaths were recorded among confirmed cases only. Therefore, the case fatality ratio (CFR) for all cases (including suspected, probable and confirmed) is 1.7%, and 21.3% for confirmed cases.