The conflict in the Niger Delta region pre-date the independence period with the agitation for the creation of Calabar, Ogoja, and Rivers States (CORs).
Subsequently, the discovery of oil in Rivers in 1957 became the centre of attraction for both national and international economic development.
The impact of oil exploration on the communities led to the clamour for the control of the resource by the people. As far back as 1966, Isaac Boro of Ijaw extraction led the first rebellion with his Delta Volunteer Service (DVS) against the Federal Government of Nigeria for the control of oil wells. Since then several other groups with similar ideologies has emerged including the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta People (MEND), Niger Delta Peoples' Volunteer Force (NDPVF), among others.