Situation Overview: Humanitarian Needs and Conflict Dynamics in Hard-to-Reach Areas in Borno State, April - June 2020

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The continuation of conflict in Northeast Nigeria has created a complex humanitarian crisis, rendering sections of Borno State as hard-to-reach (H2R) for humanitarian actors. To support the humanitarian response for affected populations, REACH has been conducting data collection in Northeast Nigeria since November 2018. These H2R assessments aim to inform humanitarian service providers working in the area by providing information on the situation of the estimated 971,0001 persons living in H2R areas, including demographics, (inter)sectoral needs, access to services, displacement trends, and movement intentions.

Additionally, the assessment has been broadened to include indicators related to COVID-19 to monitor for potential localized outbreaks.


Remaining Populations: The main reason people were reported to be staying in the H2R settlements was because they were afraid of traveling.

Protection: Incidents of conflict resulting in the death of a civilian and incidents of looting were reported to have taken place in assessed settlements in all assessed local government areas (LGAs). Both types of incidents were particularly commonly reported in Jere and Konduga, while looting appeared to be common in Bama.

Food Security: Food access related indicators suggested that people were using negative coping strategies to deal with a lack of food. In Bama and Gwoza more than half of assessed settlements reported most people relied on foraging as their main source of food.

Health: Access to a functional health facility was reported in almost none of the assessed settlements, except for some settlements in Jere and Konduga. The most common health problem was reported to be fever/malaria and reporting on symptoms related to COVID-19 was limited.

WASH: In the majority of assessed settlements, the main drinking water sources were found to be unimproved sources. In Abadam, Kukawa and Marte, reporting on latrine use was particularly low.

Shelter: Makeshift shelters were the most commonly reported main shelter type in assessed settlements overall.

Communication: Communication systems in H2R areas were reported to be limited, with the main source of information most often reported as in-person communication or radio.

Less than half of assessed settlements overall reported people had heard of COVID-19.