Situation Overview: Humanitarian Needs and Conflict Dynamics in Hard-to-Reach Areas of Adamawa and Borno States, July-September 2020

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Map 1: Proportion of settlements assessed, 1 July 2020 - 30 September 2020 The continuation of conflict in Northeast Nigeria has created a complex humanitarian crisis, rendering sections of Adamawa and Borno states as hard-to-reach (H2R) for humanitarian actors. To support the humanitarian response for affected populations, REACH has been conducting data collection in Northeast Nigeria since November 2018. These H2R assessments aim to provide information on the situation of the estimated 971,000 persons living in H2R areas to humanitarian service providers, including demographics, (inter)sectoral needs, access to services, displacement trends, and movement intentions. Additionally, the assessment has been broadened to include indicators related to COVID-19 to monitor for potential localized outbreaks. This Situation Overview covers four local government areas (LGAs) in Adamawa State (Madagali, Michika, Mubi North and Mubi South) and twelve LGAs in Borno State (Abadam, Askira/Uba, Bama, Damboa, Dikwa, Gubio, Gwoza, Konduga, Kukawa, Magumeri, Marte and Ngala, see Map 1).


Using the Area of Knowledge (AoK) method, REACH remotely monitors the situation in H2R areas through monthly multi-sector interviews in accessible LGA capitals with key informants (KIs) who are either (1) newly arrived internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have left a H2R settlement in the last month prior to the data collection or (2) KIs who have had contact with someone living in or having been in a H2R settlement in the last month (traders, migrants, family members, etc).

Data collection took place from 1 July to 30 September 2020. Due to precautions related to the COVID-19 outbreak, data was collected remotely with assistance from local stakeholders. The local stakeholders were located in 13 garrison towns in Borno: Bama, Damboa, Dikwa, Gubio, Guzamala, Gwoza, Konduga, Magumeri, Monguno, Damboa, Maiduguri, Ngala and Pulka. Findings are only reported on LGAs where at least 5% of the populated settlements and at least 5 settlements in the respective LGA have been assessed. Unless otherwise stated, the recall period for each question is one month prior to the last information the KI has had from the H2R area.

KIs were purposively sampled and interviewed on settlement-wide circumstances in H2R areas, rather than their individual experiences. Responses from KIs reporting on the same settlement were then aggregated to the settlement level. The response provided by the greatest number of KIs for each settlement is reported. When no most common response could be identified, the response was considered as ‘no consensus’. While included in the calculations, the percentages of settlements for which no consensus was reached are not always displayed in the results. Unless otherwise specified, findings are presented as a proportion of assessed settlements within the LGA.

In this report, quantitative data is triangulated with information from indepth interviews (IDIs) when possible. Two rounds of semi-structured IDIs were conducted remotely to assess (1) the COVID-19 communication and information flow and (2) the sources of food and access to livelihood opportunities of the population living in H2R areas of Borno. Across the two rounds, REACH conducted 58 IDIs in total. The IDIs completed were with participants from Bama (18), Gwoza (15), Damboa (14), Abadam (6) and Guzamala(4).

H2R data is indicative only and not statistically generalisable and, therefore, must be triangulated with other sources. More information on the methodology can be found in the H2R Terms of Reference (ToR).