Research Methodology Note: Multi-Sectoral Needs and COVID-19 Vulnerability of Host Communities and Informal Settlements in North East Nigeria (Phase II) NGA2005 Nigeria - October 2020, V1

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2. Rationale

2.1. Rationale

Ten years into the conflict, the humanitarian situation in Northeast Nigeria remains one of the world’s most severe. Out of Borno,
Adamawa, and Yobe (BAY) states’ total population of 13 million people, an estimated 7.9 million were in need of humanitarian assistance at the start of 2020. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) estimates that number may have risen to as high at 10.2 million since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the 2020 Humanitarian Needs Overview, over 60% of Northeast Nigeria’s IDPs currently reside in host communities, making them harder to identify, target, and access than IDPs residing in formal and informal camps, and further stretching the already limited resources of these communities. As a subcategory of host communities, informal sites and settlements are especially vulnerable, housing those oftentimes outside the scope of non-governmental organization (NGO) assistance, without access to adequate services, and frequently without housing tenure. Additionally, high population densities and economic precariousness observed in informal settlements, particularly in urban areas, are also potential vectors for disease transmission and aggravating factors for secondary impacts, making the identification of host communities with these typologies of significant importance for service providers.

In order to effectively plan an intervention for affected host-communities, the camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) sector depends on detailed information pertaining to residents’ needs and intentions. This assessment has thus been designed to inform sectors (1) understanding of the needs of populations residing in these communities, both displaced and non-displaced, and (2) knowledge of which of areas reflect qualities typically associated with ISETs, and are more likely to have residents residing in ISETs or analogous conditions. Because all residents of host community settlements are affected by the crisis, either directly due to insecurity or displacement, or indirectly due to increased strain on the services, resources, and livelihoods of their community, this assessment is geared towards understanding the needs of all community residents, both displaced and non-displaced residents, within ISETs, but also in the broader host community. REACH is well positioned to conduct this assessment given its network of key informants, established during large multi-sectoral assessments, such as the MSNA and phase one of this assessment, and its experience conducting needs assessments in difficult settings. It also holds a close partnership with sectors and actors operating in the northeast, which has been utilized throughout research design to ensure outputs are as programmatically relevant as possible.